Advanced Functional Materials: Properties and Applications, Vol. II

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Authors: Arush Sharma, Gaurav Sharma, Amit Kumar, Zia Mahmood Siddiqi, Gaurav Sharma
Abstract: In this study, Cornulaca monacantha stem (CMS) has been used for the preparation of highly competent, ecofriendly and low-cost activated carbon (CMSAC) biosorbent. It was characterized by some instrumental techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biosorbent was evaluated for the eradication of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the effect of various adsorption parameters such initial dye concentration, sorbent dosage, pH, agitation time and temperature. The results indicated that maximum sorption of MG was occurred at the pH ranged from 10.0 to 12.0. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms were applied for the interpretation of experimental data and Langmuir model was found to be strongly fitted with higher R2 (0.999). The kinetics studies were examined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich model. The sorption process was described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters such as energy change (ΔG°), enthalpychange (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were found to be-6.21kJ/mol, 46.17 kJ/mol and 172.81 J/mol/K, respectively. The adsorption performance of malachite green dye onto gleaming activated carbon developed from Cornulaca monacantha stem was found to be spontaneous, feasible and endothermic process.
Authors: Mohammad Mujahid Ali Khan, Mu. Naushad
Abstract: The inorganic-organic hybrid composite membranes have played a rocking role for separation, concentration, purification and clarification of food industry wastewater. The separation of wastewater produced from post-treatment part of food industry processing using PVC based magnesium molybdate (MM) composite membrane was studied in this paper. The physicochemical and electrochemical studies of composite membrane shows better results from previously reported membranes. In this study, the transport number, mobility ratio and surface charge density of composite membrane play a dominant role for understanding the membrane mechanism and these parameters depend on the concentration of various univalent electrolytes.
Authors: Ming Guo Ma, Shan Liu, Lian Hua Fu
Abstract: CaCO3 has six polymorphs such as vaterite, aragonite, calcite, amorphous, crystalline monohydrate, and hexahydrate CaCO3. CaCO3 is a typical biomineral that is abundant in both organisms and nature and has important industrial applications. Cellulose could be used as feedstocks for producing biofuels, bio-based chemicals, and high value-added bio-based materials. In the past, more attentions have been paid to the synthesis and applications of CaCO3 and cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites due to its relating properties such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and biodegradation, and bioactivity, and potential applications including biomedical, antibacterial, and water pretreatment fields as functional materials. A variety of synthesis methods such as the hydrothermal/solvothermal method, biomimetic mineralization method, microwave-assisted method, (co-) precipitation method, and sonochemistry method, were employed to the preparation of CaCO3 and cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites. In this chapter, the recent development of CaCO3 and cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites has been reviewed. The synthesis, characterization, and biomedical applications of CaCO3 and cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites are summarized. The future developments of CaCO3 and cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites are also suggested.
Authors: Ranjana Das, Himadri Sekhar Samanta, Chiranjib Bhattacharjee
Abstract: A ‘biomaterial’, recognizes some materials for biomedical applications like replacement of living system and wound stressing. ‘Biomaterials’ includes different compounds from diverse origins, like polymers, metals, ceramics and composites. Along with conventional natural polymers (polysaccharides, proteins), synthetic and biodegradable polymers like Polyvinyl alcohol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Polyetheleneglycol, Polylactic acid, Polyhydroxy acid are promisingly used in drug delivery, tissue engineering, biomedical sensing, skin grafting and medical adhesives. ‘Hydrogel’ a new generation biodegradable polymer typically used for pharmaceutical and medical purposes. Hydrogels are coined as super absorbent with significant function in health care, especially in wound treatment and protection. Unique characteristics features like enhanced hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, zero-toxicity and biodegradability along with soft and rubbery consistency, low interfacial tension and ‘self-healing’ properties make them compatible with living tissues. Hydrogels have been widely investigated as the carrier for drug delivery systems owing to their unusual characteristics like swelling in aqueous medium, pH and temperature sensitivity, or sensitivity towards other stimuli. Hydrogels being biocompatible materials have been recognized to function as drug protectors, especially for peptides and proteins, from in-vivo environment. In present context, development of ‘in situ’ forming systems for various biomedical applications, including drug delivery, cell encapsulation, and tissue repair are emerging. Among several typical hydrogel synthesis approaches like, solvent exchange, UV-irradiation, ionic cross-linkage, pH change, and temperature modulation, the ‘thermosensitive’ approach is advantageous since it does not require use of any organic solvents, co-polymerization agents and externally applied trigger for gelation. This review presents an overview to the advances in hydrogel based drug delivery system with some reconstructive features in the biomedical applications.
Authors: Singan Grace, Kang Chiang Liew
Abstract: Starch is the most important polysaccharide and has become the major component of many food industries as well as textile, paper, cosmetic and certain industries that engage in adhesive, thickening, stiffening and gelling agents. However, native starch has limited function and therefore is recommended to modify its physical and chemical properties to meet the consumers’ needs. In this study, the native starch was chemically modified to determine its behavior and characteristics after using hydrolysis process of acid hydrolysis method. There were three types of starch that has been studied - potato, cassava and corn. These starches undergone hydrolysis process using hydrochloric acid and their characteristics were determinedthrough moisture absorption test and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. For moisture absorption test, hydrolyzed starch tends to absorb more surrounding moisture than native starch. This behavior resulted from the increase of hydrophilic character of starch after being modified. The FT-IR analysis shows that hydrolyzed starch content got more hydroxyl group than the native starch due to the breakdown of hydrogen bond between the starch molecules after the acid hydrochloric treatment.
Authors: S.J.A. Rizvi
Abstract: The microcellular injection molding technology, commercially offered by Trexel Inc. and other manufacturers, is primarily a close cell foaming technique. This process is capable of offering light weight non-porous thermoplastics moldings. The foaming of thermoplastics with open cellular morphology has got various high end applications among others like tissue engineering and membrane separation. Some of the researchers were successful in synthesis of open cellular thermoplastics at laboratory scale via solid state batch process. The growing demand for microporous thermoplastics, especially the biodegradable plastics (e.g. Polylactic acid), motivated the researchers develop a specialized microcellular injection molding process for processing of open cell thermoplastics using physical blowing agents such as supercritical nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas. A brief of theoretical and conceptual treatment of microcellular injection molding is presented.
Authors: Arantzazu Valdés García, María del Carmen Garrigós Selva
Abstract: Growing interest in biomass valorisation in recent years has led to an increasing research focusing on its high content in phytochemicals showing high potential health benefits related to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, among others. On the other hand, the demand for natural antioxidants in industry is continuously increasing to avoid the harmless character of some chemical additives and, also, to limit oxidation processes in the final material, such as in food and cosmetics; increasing consumer acceptance. However, the majority of them are usually sensitive to several factors such as oxygen, light, heat, enzymes, salts, and acid or alkali mediums which lead to losses of their activity and beneficial effects. As a consequence, microencapsulation technique has been proposed in last years as a way to enhance the stability, solubility and bioavailability of these compounds. In this chapter, phytochemical compounds classification followed by their main characteristics and properties are summarized. Also, microencapsulation techniques for phytochemicals are reviewed including processes for preparing microparticles, mainly focused on spray-drying method, for industry applications.
Authors: Mohammad Mujahid Ali Khan, Anish Khan
Abstract: The chemical and mechanical stability of membrane play a important role for understanding the mechanism and applications of cobalt tungstate cation exchange membrane. The PVC based cobalt tungstate (CT) membrane has been prepared by different methods like sol-gel, die-casting and others material processing techniques. It has been prepared through the mixing of PVC with cobalt tungstate into a definite ratio (1:3) that shows good mechanical stability. Moreover, the paper is concerned with physico-chemical and electro-chemical characterization of membrane, namely fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical studies. The results of characterization and electrochemical studies offered the potential industrial applications of membrane in different areas.
Authors: Deeba Khanam
Abstract: Contraception means interference in the process of ovulation, fertilization or implantation. This is an old practice and dates back to ancient times and continues to modify and remodify itself according to the social customs and demands of the society. This chapter discusses various forms and methods of contraception, their efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of their use, their importance in present scenario and their impact on the society. Unwanted pregnancies and their termination attempt can be hazardous if not dealt in proper way, so avoidance of pregnancy is considered the best way out for physical and mental health of the patient and thereby focuses the importance of contraception practice and health education.

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