Oil Palm Fiber Vinylester Composite; Effect of Bleaching Treatment


Article Preview

The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of chemical treatment on the flexural properties of the composite. Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers (OPEFB) reinforced Vinylester composite were prepared in this study. Soxhlet extraction together with sodium hypochlorite bleaching methods was used for chemical treatment. The diameter of fibers was reduced from a range of 250-350 μm to 10-15 μm by treatment. Shape and texture of the fibers transformed from solid brown colored strings into a white gel. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) test was carried to investigate the effect of treatment on the thermal properties of natural fibers. Vinylester composites were fabricated using untreated and bleached OPEFB fibers. The bending test results showed the bleached fibers displayed greater flexural properties compared to untreated fibers, where the time of bleaching was an important factor in the treatment process.



Edited by:

Sujan Debnath




O. Nabinejad et al., "Oil Palm Fiber Vinylester Composite; Effect of Bleaching Treatment", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 882, pp. 43-50, 2017

Online since:

January 2017




* - Corresponding Author

[1] O. Nabinejad, et al., Effect of oil palm shell powder on the mechanical performance and thermal stability of polyester composites. Materials & Design, 2015. 65: pp.823-830.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.09.080

[2] A. Hassan, et al., A review on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials. Polymer Composites, 2010. 31(12): pp.2079-2101.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.21006

[3] O. Nabinejad, et al., Determination of filler content for natural filler polymer composite by thermogravimetric analysis. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2015: pp.1-7.

[4] O. Nabinejad, et al., Mechanical and thermal characterization of polyester composite containing treated wood flour from Palm oil biomass. Polymer Composites, 2016: In press (DOI: 10. 1002/pc. 24052).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.24052

[5] K. Tan, et al., Palm oil: addressing issues and towards sustainable development. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 2009. 13(2): pp.420-427.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.10.001

[6] F. Fahma, et al., Isolation, preparation, and characterization of nanofibers from oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB). Cellulose, 2010. 17(5): pp.977-985.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9436-4

[7] O. Nabinejad, and S. Debnath, Natural-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. Spherical and Fibrous Filler Composites, 2016. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp.101-125.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527670222.ch4

[8] S. J. Eichhorn, et al., Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Science, 2009. 45(1): pp.1-33.

[9] D. Chen, et al., Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste. Carbohydrate polymers, 2012. 90(1): pp.709-716.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.06.002

[10] M. D. H. Beg, and K.L. Pickering, Accelerated weathering of unbleached and bleached Kraft wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2008. 93(10): p.1939-(1946).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2008.06.012

[11] N. Johar, N., I. Ahmad, and A. Dufresne, Extraction, preparation and characterization of cellulose fibres and nanocrystals from rice husk. Industrial Crops and Products, 2012. 37(1): pp.93-99.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.12.016

[12] Y. Cao, S. Shibata, and I. Fukumoto, Mechanical properties of biodegradable composites reinforced with bagasse fibre before and after alkali treatments. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2006. 37(3): pp.423-429.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2005.05.045

[13] A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, L.T. Drzal, Natural Fibers, Biopolymers, and Biocomposites, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, (2005).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203508206

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.