Current Material Research Using X-Rays and Related Techniques II

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Authors: Johar Banjuraizah, Phan Khor Shing, Nur Azmera Zaili
Abstract: Pure 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and 3mol % of Fe-doped YSZ electrolyte from different source of Fe (p)in oxide form (pure iron oxide powders, Fe2O3) and Fe(s) source from salt (iron nitrate, Fe(NO3)3) were prepared and sintered at 1550°C for 2 hours. The effect of Fe dopant from different source of Fe to the crystal structure and ionic conductivity of 8YSZ samples were investigated. The addition of 3 mol % Fe from iron nitrate source (sample 3Fe(s)YSZ) greatly enhanced the growth of monoclinic phase as compared to 8YSZ sintered samples while the addition of 3 mol % Fe from pure iron oxide powder source (sample 3Fe(s)YSZ) enhanced the crystallization of cubic phase and decrease the monoclinic phase. The addition of Fe significantly enhanced the ionic conductivity of 8YSZ sample for both source of Fe. However, 3Fe(p)8YSZ has smaller grain resistivity and thus has higher conductivity compared to 3Fe(s)YSZ.
Authors: Rosyaini Afindi Zaman, Mohamad Johari Abu, Mohd Fariz Ab Rahman, Wan Fahmin Faiz Wan Ali, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Mohd Fadzil Ain, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: The dielectric properties of CCTO with addition Al2O3 prepared via solid state reaction investigated and reported at 1 GHz. With addition Al2O3 from 20 wt% to 80 wt%, secondary phase starts appear in XRD analysis such as copper dialuminium oxide (CuAl2O4), calcium titanate (CaTiO3) and titanium oxide (TiO2). These secondary phases show great influence on morphology and grain size of Al2O3/ CCTO composites. Hence, the addition of only 20 wt% Al2O3, the dielectric constant of CCTO reduce almost 50% and tangent loss is in between 0.0028 to 0.0630 which is very low and this characterization is suitable to use in electronic application in high frequency range.
Authors: Mohamad Johari Abu, Rosyaini Afindi Zaman, Mohd Fariz Ab Rahman, Mohsen Ahmadipour, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Mohd Fadzil Ain, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: In this work, (1-x)CaCu3Ti4O12/xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1) composite samples were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The dielectric properties of the samples were investigated at frequency range of 20 – 106 Hz. X-ray diffractogram results show that the samples with Al2O3 sintered at 1040 °C/10 h are mixed phase and consist of CaCu3Ti4O12, CuAl2O4, TiO2 and Al2O3. The average grain size of the samples increased greatly for x = 0.01, then abruptly depressed for x ≥ 0.03. Al2O3-added (x = 0.01) has been shown to increase the dielectric permittivity (ε’) up to ~5000 over frequency range of 102 – 105 Hz, while retaining the dielectric loss (tan δ ~ 0.15) at 1 kHz. With further increase of Al2O3 content, the ε’ and tan δ values of the samples are decreased monotonically in all frequency ranges. The improvement of dielectric properties in the composite sample was attributed to the enhanced grain boundary resistance.
Authors: Eing Kuan Kok, Johar Banjuraizah, Li Ngee Ho, Zabar Yahidah
Abstract: This study focus on synthesis of α-phase cordierite using different non-stoichiometric cordierite composition through solid state reaction by adjusting the ratio of magnesia, MgO and alumina, Al2O3 in the cordierite composition formulation respectively. The qualitative and quantitative of phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffractive (XRD) technique and Rietveld structural refinement method. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to investigate the crystallization behavior of various cordierite formulations as the function of temperature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed. Cordierite with formulation of 2.5MgO.1.8Al2O3.5SiO2 constitutes up to 96.4 wt% when the samples was sintered for 2 hours at the optimal temperature of 1375 °C. The SEM micrograph revealed that the approaching single α-Cordierite sample obtained densified body with well alignment of crystal structure.
Authors: Mohd Fariz Ab Rahman, Mohamad Johari Abu, Rosyaini Afindi Zaman, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Mohd Fadzil Ain, Mohamad Kamarol Mohd Jamil, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: The effect of calcination temperature on the breakdown strength and energy density of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics was studied. CCTO ceramics were prepared via solid state reaction method. The raw materials of CCTO were wet mixed for 24 hours and then dried overnight in oven. CCTO mixtures were calcined at three different temperature which is at 900°C, 930°C and 950°C for 12 hours. The calcined powders were compacted at 250 MPa and then were sintered at 1040°C for 10 hours. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) analysis showed the formation of CCTO phase and secondary phases of CuO and CaTiO3 for C900 calcined powders but single phase of CCTO was obtained by C930 and C950 calcined powders. Single phase of CCTO also were seen for all sintered samples. Observation on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed large grain size was seen in C900 sintered sample and finer grain size was observed for C930 and C950 sintered samples. C900 sintered sample obtained highest dielectric constant (8617), highest breakdown strength (7.92 kV/cm), highest energy density (2.392 J/cm3).
Authors: Noor Asliza Ismail Adnen, Nur Atiqah Azwa Joulme Morad, Mohd Aidil Adhha Abdullah, Mohd Al Amin Muhamad Nor
Abstract: The abundancy of ball clay can be transform into more useful form. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different amount of dispersant on ceramic system. Ball clay from Kampung Dengir, Besut, Terengganu was used as starting powder while sodium silicate was used as dispersant to produce good flow ability, minimum viscosity and controllable ceramic slurry. Ceramic slurry was prepared by adding additives such as binder, flux, filler and dispersant, casted onto POP mould to obtain ceramic body. Ceramic then cut into test pieces (8cm x 2cm) and mixed for 2 h and aged for 2 days before dried at 70 °C overnight and sintered at temperature of 800-1200 °C in furnace for 2 h with heating rate 5 °C/min. Slurries also tested for rheological properties using rheometer (brand Thermo Haake). Viscosity and shear stress were measured to investigate the rhoelogical behaviour of slip with different amount of dispersant (0.03 mL to 0.06 mL/200 mL of sample). Characterization of raw samples has been done using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) showing the presence of kaolinite and quartz. Effect of dispersant on rheological behavior, rate of shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and density were investigated It was found that increase in amount of dispersant added exhibit the best rheological behavior, and 0.05 mL dispersant was the optimum amount in term of rate of shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and density. As a conclusion, 0.05 mL was the optimum dispersant which gives best rheological behavior and almost fault-free ceramic bodies
Authors: Ahmad Kamil Fakhruddin Mokhtar, Hasmaliza Mohamad
Abstract: In this research, cordierite was produced using oxide based raw materials (MgO, SiO2 and Al2O3) through glass route method. A mixture of raw material was gone through melting at 1550 °C followed by water quenching. Glass powder produced were then milled for 5 hour to get fine powder. Cordierite powder produced was then used to prepare 3-D porous cordierite ceramic. In this research, gelcasting method was choosen. The dispersant amount added in the cordierite slurry was varied (2.5-5.5g). The cordierite pellet were then characterized using x-ray difraction. Results shows high purity (99%) cordierite was obtained. The porosity and compressive strength were tested. The porosity show when increasing the dispersant amount, the porosity will decrease. For compressive strength increase when the dispersant amount increase.
Authors: Hasrul Yahya, Mohd Roslee Othman, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: Porcelain balls as grinding media are produced by firing process of clay, quartz and feldspar mixtures. This application need high technological properties such as high compressive strength and hardness, wear resistance, low water absorption and excellent chemical resistance. These properties are associated with higher firing temperatures. The porcelain balls were prepared by mixing 30 wt.% clay, 40 wt.% feldspar and 30 wt.% quartz. The samples were sintered at 1200°C, 1230°C, 1250°C, 1270°C and 1300°C for 2 hours with heating rate of 3°C/min. Both green powder and fired samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The properties of the fired samples were evaluated by compressive strength, hardness, shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, and porosity measurement. Increasing of compressive strength, hardness and density are associated with increasing of firing temperatures. Porcelain balls PB1 and PB2 can be produced as grinding media with optimum mechanical and physical properties at firing temperature 1270°C and 1250°C, respectively.
Authors: Fatin Khairah Bahanurdin, Julie Juliewatty Mohamed, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
Abstract: In this research, alkaline niobate known as K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was synthesis by solid state reaction method which pressing at different sintering temperatures (1000 °C and 1080 °C) prepared via hot isostatic pressing (HIP)). The effect of sintering temperature on structure and dielectric properties was studied. The optimum sintering temperature (at 1080 °C for 30 minutes) using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was successfully increase the density, enlarge the particle grain size in the range of 0.3 µm – 2.5 µm and improves the dielectric properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramics. The larger grain size and higher density ceramics body will contribute the good dielectric properties. At room temperature, the excellent relative permittivity and tangent loss recorded at 1 MHz (ɛr = 5517.35 and tan δ = 0.954), respectively for KNN1080HIP sample. The KNN1080HIP sample is also exhibits highest relative density which is 4.485 g/cm3. The ɛr depends upon density and in this work, the density increase as the sintering temperature increase, which resulting the corresponding ɛr value also increases.

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