Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2016

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Authors: Hiromasa Suo, Kazuma Eto, Tomohisa Kato, Kazutoshi Kojima, Hiroshi Osawa, Hajime Okumura
Abstract: The growth of n-type 4H-SiC crystal was performed by physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method by using nitrogen and aluminum (N-Al) co-doping. Resistivity of N-Al co-doped 4H-SiC was as low as 5.8 mΩcm. The dislocation densities of N-Al co-doped substrates were evaluated by synchrotron radiation X-ray topography (SXRT). In addition, epitaxial growth was performed on the N-Al co-doped substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). No double Shockley type stacking fault was observed in the epitaxial layer.
Authors: Evgeniy N. Mokhov, Sergey S. Nagalyuk, Victor A. Soltamov
Abstract: The distribution of extended defects in silicon carbide (SiC) crystals grown on profiled seeds by the sublimation (physical vapor transport) method has been studied by optical microscopy in combination with chemical etching. It is established that free lateral growth on protruding relief elements (mesas) is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the density of threading dislocations and micropipes. The decreased density of dislocations is retained after growing a thick layer that involves the overgrowth of grooves that separated individual mesas.
Authors: Jung Woo Choi, Jong Hwi Park, Jung Doo Seo, Jung Gyu Kim, Myung Ok Kyun, Kap Ryeol Ku, Hwang Ju Kim, Dong Hoon Lee, Yeon Suk Jang, Won Jae Lee
Abstract: The method to attach seed to crucible lid as well as seed quality is very important for obtaining high quality crystals. Therefore, modified seeding method was developed for improving adhesive layer between seed and graphite crucible lid. SiC single crystal grown with modified seeding method definitely exhibited lower micropipe density (MPD) and lower full width at half maximum (FWHM) values comparing with values from conventional seeding method. Etch pit density of SiC crystal was successfully decreased with using the modified seeding method.
Authors: Philipp Schuh, Grazia Litrico, Francesco La Via, Marco Mauceri, Peter J. Wellmann
Abstract: We report on the growth of bulk 3C-SiC by sublimation on epitaxial seeding layers (3C-SiC/Si) from chemical vapor deposition. We have reached a materials thickness of 0.85 mm and an area of 10.5 cm2 which can be enlarged further. The high crystalline quality is characterized by the absence of secondary polytype inclusions and the absence double position grain boundaries.
Authors: Xiu Fang Chen, Fu Sheng Zhang, Xiang Long Yang, Yan Peng, Xue Jian Xie, Tian Li, Xiao Bo Hu, Xian Gang Xu, Guang Lei Li, Rui Qi Wang
Abstract: Three-inch 6H-SiC bulk crystals were grown by the PVT method on the seeds processed by different treatments. The influences of seed surface morphology and subsurface damage on the dislocation density were investigated. The seed surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The extent of the subsurface damage was estimated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Band Contrast (BC) value. The distribution and density of the dislocations were observed by optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that the pit density performed by H2 1400°C etching was nearly one order of magnitude lower than that by mechanical polishing (MP) process. So H2 etching processed at 1400°C for 2h could completely remove the subsurface damage, compared with the MP process with the deep surface damage.
Authors: Kenta Murayama, Tsukasa Hori, S. Harada, S. Xiao, M. Tagawa, Toru Ujihara
Abstract: In order to achieve a high-quality SiC crystal in solution growth, one of the most difficult issues is to grow a thick layer on Si face avoiding polytype transformation. In this case, two-dimensional nucleation, which leads to the polytype transformation, is frequently induced because a density of threading screw dislocations acting as a source of spiral step decreases and wide terraces form by step bunching as growth proceeds. Therefore, it is very difficult to stabilize the polytype of crystals grown with extremely low density of threading screw dislocations. In this study, we tried to overcome these problems by using specially designed seed crystal and optimizing growth temperature and temperature distribution. We successfully grew thick low-threading-dislocation density SiC crystal without polytype transformation under the condition of high growth temperature and homogeneous temperature distribution.
Authors: Tsukasa Hori, Kenta Murayama, S. Harada, S. Xiao, M. Tagawa, Toru Ujihara
Abstract: The relationship between surface morphology and spatial distribution of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC crystal grown by top-seeded solution growth on the C face was investigated by the differential interference microscopy as well as X-ray topography. Basal plane dislocations were generated at the boundaries of the domains with the different macrosteps advance directions. On the other hand, at the position where macrosteps advance to the same direction, BPDs were hardly observed. This results suggest that BPD density can be decreased by the suppression of the collision of macrosteps during the solution growth on the C face controlling the surface morphology.
Authors: S. Harada, Goki Hatasa, Kenta Murayama, Tomohisa Kato, M. Tagawa, Toru Ujihara
Abstract: In order to design a solvent for high-purity SiC solution growth, the impurity incorporation and the carbon solubility of various solvent materials have been investigated. Among the transition metal elements, the impurity elements of Cr, Ti, V and Hf are more readily incorporate during the solution growth than the other transition metal elements. The thermodynamic calculation revealed that the Y-Si solvent has relatively large carbon solubility, which is comparable to the Cr-Si and Ti-Si solvents often used in the solution growth of bulk SiC crystals. From these results, the Y-Si solvent is expected to be a suitable solvent for the high-purity SiC solution growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the Y-Si solvent can achieve lower incorporation of metal impurity in the grown crystal than the Cr-Si solvent maintaining the growth rate.
Authors: Ling Guo, Koji Kamei, Kenji Momose, Hiroshi Osawa
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the epitaxial surface defects resulting from the carbon-inclusion defects in 4H-SiC substrate. Most carbon-inclusion defects developed into one of three types of epitaxial surface defects under normal epitaxial growth conditions. Among them, we found a regular hexagonal pit by high-resolution microscopy, which we regarded as a large-pit defect, and which had an adverse impact on the reverse electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes. Conversion of a carbon-inclusion defect to a large-pit defect or a triangular defect could be reduced by reducing the C/Si ratio.

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