Mechanical Stress Evaluation by Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation VIII

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Authors: Yusuke Onuki, Ryuji Ukai, Shigeo Sato, Shun Fujieda, Kozo Shinoda, Kentaro Kajiwara, Masugu Sato, Shigeru Suzuki
Abstract: Fe-Ga alloys show large magnetostriction, which strongly depends on crystal orientation. This phenomenon is associated to some degree with large elastic anisotropy. In this study, white X-ray diffraction with micro-beam synchrotron radiation was used to evaluate the microscopic stresses evolved in a polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy under tensile loading. In the analysis, the large elastic anisotropy of the Fe-Ga alloy was focused. The stress distribution in the alloy microstructure under tensile loading was estimated using a finite element method (FEM) simulation that considered the dependence of the elasticity on the crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of grains in the polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy was measured using electron backscatter diffraction. The FEM simulation showed that the stress distribution in the microstructure depended on the crystal orientation. The X-ray diffraction stress analysis indicated that under tensile loading, the stresses in the alloy depended on the crystal orientation. This finding is similar to the results obtained from the FEM simulation, although the absolute values of the stresses may have reflected the effects of heterogeneous deformation on the stress distribution.
Authors: Yu Chen Zhao, Léa Le Joncour, Andrzej Baczmański, Manuel François, Sebastian Wroński, Benoit Panicaud, Elżbieta Gadalińska, Chedly Braham, Thomas Buslaps, Anna Paradowska
Abstract: In the present work, the mechanical behavior of phases in duplex steel during tensile test was studied. Special interest was taken in the analysis of damage process just before failure. In this aim two diffraction methods: in-situ time of flight neutron diffraction and X-ray synchrotron diffraction were applied. Using diffraction data, the slip mechanism on crystallographic planes during plastic deformation was investigated. In the case of aged UR45N steel, it was found that significant softening caused by damage process was initiated in the ferritic phase. The lattice strains measured in situ by two above mentioned diffraction methods were compared with prediction of the self-consistent model.
Authors: Sebastian Wroński, Krzysztof Wierzbanowski, Mariusz Jędrychowski, Jacek Tarasiuk, Marcin Wronski, Andrzej Baczmański, Brigitte Bacroix, Alain Lodini
Abstract: The goal work of this work is to describe the qualitative and quantitative behaviour of titanium T40 during tensile test. Material characteristics were determined using EBSD and X-ray techniques. Textures, twin boundary fractions, residual stresses and coherent domain size were determined. It was found that deformation mechanisms and microstructure characteristics are different in the samples stretched along rolling and transverse directions. For example the average grain size, as determined from EBSD measurements, is higher in the sample stretched along rolling direction. Also smaller coherent domains form and residual stress is more easily relaxed in this sample. A strong appearance of tensile twins was observed in the samples deformed along transverse direction. In the present paper a complex study of material characteristics and deformation mechanisms is presented. A special emphasis is done on residual stress characteristics determined in the samples stretched in two perpendicular directions.
Authors: Yo Tomota, Shigeo Sato, Masahiro Uchida, Ping Guang Xu, Stefanus Hirjo, Wu Gong, Takuro Kawasaki
Abstract: Microstructural change during hot compressive deformation at 700 oC followed by isothermal annealing for a Fe-32Ni austenitic alloy was monitored using in situ neutron diffraction. The evolution of deformation texture with 40% compression and its change to recrystallization texture during isothermal annealing were presented by inverse pole figures for the axial and radial directions. The change in dislocation density was tracked using the convolutional multiple whole profile fitting method. To obtain the fitting results with good accuracies, at least 60 s time-interval for slicing the event-mode recorded data was needed. The average dislocation density in 60 s after hot compression was determined to be 2.8 x 1014 m-2, and it decreased with increasing of annealing time.
Authors: Jeremy S. Robinson, Christopher E. Truman, Thilo Pirling, Tobias Panzner
Abstract: The residual stresses in heat treated 7075 aluminium alloy blocks have been characterised using two neutron diffraction strain scanning instruments. The influence of uniaxial cold compression (1-10%) on relieving the residual stress has been determined. Increasing the magnitude of cold compression from 1 to 10% has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the residual stress distribution by reducing the range between the maximum and minimum residual stresses. The effect of over aging 7075 on residual stress has also been characterised using neutron diffraction and this was found to reduce the residual stress by 25-40%. A relationship between {311} peaks widths and amount of cold compression was also observed.
Authors: Carlos Reyes-Ruiz, Igniasio A. Figueroa, Chedly Braham, Jose Maria Cabrera, Olivier Zanellato, Sarah Baiz, Gonzalo Gonzalez
Abstract: Among the severe plastic deformation techniques, the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has drastically improved the mechanical properties of the processed alloys. However, information regarding friction phenomenon, which modifies the deformation at the surface and the heterogeneity microstrain state produced by the process itself, is still scarce. In the present work, the deformation heterogeneity and the friction effect, at the surface in the bulk material of the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy processed by ECAP, is presented and discussed. The residual stress (RS) measurements were performed by means of X-Ray diffraction. By means of synchrotron diffraction, volumetric sections of the ECAPed samples were characterized. Finite element analysis showed a good agreement with the experimentally obtained residual stress and microhardness mapping results. The study also showed that the highest deformation zones were located at the outer parts of the deformed samples (top and bottom), while the inner zone showed strain oscillations of up to 49±2 MPa.
Authors: Stefanus Harjo, Takuro Kawasaki, Yo Tomota, Wu Gong
Abstract: To understand the strengthening mechanism of a metallic material with high dislocation density, the plastic deformation behavior of lath martensite was studied by means of in situ neutron diffraction measurements during tensile deformations using a 22SiMn2TiB steel and a Fe-18Ni alloy. The characteristics of dislocation were analyzed and were discussed with the relation of stress-strain curves. The dislocation densities (ρ) induced by martensitic transformation during heat-treatment in both materials were found to be originally as high as 1015 m-2 order, and subsequently to increase slightly by the tensile deformation. The parameter M value which displays the dislocation arrangement dropped drastically at the beginning of plastic deformation in both materials, indicating that the random arrangement became more like a dipole arrangement.
Authors: Felana Rakotovao, Z. Tao, Benoit Panicaud, Jean Luc Grosseau-Poussard, Guillaume Geandier, Pierre Olivier Renault, Philippe Goudeau, Nathalie Boudet, Nils Blanc, Hugo Vitoux, Bernard Gorges
Abstract: This work takes place in the general context of a better understanding of materials degradation mechanisms in extreme environments. In particular, the aim of the present study was to correlate microstructural elements to growth stress magnitude evolution and stress release mechanisms for thermally grown chromia thin films on NiCr alloys. Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Data have been acquired from oxides grown for different high temperatures evolutions on NiCr model alloys that form Cr2O3. Using synchrotron X-Ray at the ESRF (Beamline BM02) coupled with an induction furnace, Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded in air at temperature between 700-1000°C and during cooling. The distortion of the diffraction rings was analyzed to yield the in-plane strain. Thermal stresses imposed on Cr2O3/NiCr by abruptly reducing the sample temperature for a period of time, exploiting the thermal expansion difference between oxide and substrate, showed noticeable subsequent stress relaxation by creep. Such a mechanism was monitored using time-dependent in situ measurements of strain relaxation in the oxide. The main results obtained from these experiments are the kinetic of the growth stress from the isothermal measurements (isothermal plateau), and the study of the stress release mechanism after the low-temperature jumps. In complement, the oxide microstructure development during the course of oxidation is also investigated from both the peaks intensity and width evolution. In all cases, the steady stage growth strain was relatively low and compressive. Different degrees of relaxation were also found on cooling depending on scale microstructure through the variation of the initial oxidation conditions. Results are compared with other reports of residual stresses evolution in Cr2O3 scales.
Authors: Mutsumi Sano, Sunao Takahashi, Atsuo Watanabe, Ayumi Shiro, Takahisa Shobu
Abstract: The dislocation density of plastically deformed oxygen free copper (OFC) was evaluated by X-ray diffraction profile analysis with synchrotron radiation. The modified Williamson-Hall and modified Warren-Averbach methods were applied to the analysis. The dislocation densities of OFC samples with compressive plastic strains of 1 % and 4 % were 5.1×1014 m-2 and 9.2×1014 m-2, respectively.

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