Nano Engineering and Materials Technologies II

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Authors: H. Mas-Ayu, Rosdi Daud, Arman Shah, H.M. Hazwan, Siti Haryani Tomadi, M.S. Salwani
Abstract: Surface modification of metallic implants is often required to facilitate positive interaction between the implant and the surrounding hard tissue. In the present study, an oxide layer (Cr2O3) was successfully created on a Co-Cr-Mo alloys substrate by using thermal oxidation technique in atmospheric condition. The effect of different carbon content (0.03% and 0.24%) of oxidized Co-Cr-Mo alloys was investigated in terms of its corrosion behavior using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques that immersed in simulated body fluid. The corrosion tests were repeated for five times for each of sample condition. The results demonstrated that thermal oxidation and carbon content have correlation in influencing the corrosion performance in Co-Cr-Mo alloys. A high carbon content sample generates a lower corrosion-rate compared to low carbon content sample even though all samples were treated at similar oxidation temperature and time duration. Observation also showed that less diffusion of cobalt released in high carbon sample which is believed has effects in creating the uniformity and dense oxide layer without any presence of microcracks and delamination. This phenomenon can be concluded that carbon content in Co-Cr-Mo alloy have influenced in controlling the reaction of metal elements during thermal oxidation which is beneficial in formation of oxide layer. The uniformity and compact oxide layer substantially have enhanced the corrosion resistance of high carbon Co-Cr-Mo alloy.
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Authors: Vit Černý, Jindrich Melichar, Jan Fleischhacker, Rostislav Drochytka
Abstract: Autoclaved aerated concrete is an ecological building material with suitable properties and long-time tradition. The research of secondary raw materials usage and technology optimization is needed in order to increase the efficiency and sustainability of its production. It is important to focus on development of mineralogical composition while studying the influence of input materials and the parameters of hydrothermal synthesis on the properties of final product. This is especially important in case of tobermorite formation as the bearer of strength in the structure. Main focus of this paper is applicability of fly ash (silica component) and admixture of energo-gypsum (sulfate component) in production of lime-ash composite in hydrothermal conditions. The research was focused on autoclaving of samples at temperature of 170°C in three various isothermal sustains. Final samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM in order to proof the influence of input materials. Results show that 5% admixture of energo-gypsum had positive influence on tobermorite formation.
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Authors: Mohammed A. Hefni, Ferri P. Hassani, Mehrdad F. Kermani
Abstract: This study is part of large and ongoing investigation into the potential use of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (NCaCO3) to improve the mechanical and physical properties of mine backfill. The investigation was conducted in two phases. In phase I, gold tailings were used to prepare backfill sample using Portland cement (PC) as the binding agent under various NCaCO3 and superplasticizer (SP) dosages. In phase II, fine silica sand was used to minimize the reactive nature of tailings, which can adversely affect uniaxial compressive strength (UCS). Samples in this phase were prepared under various NCaCO3 dosages using slag:PC weight ratios of 80:20 as the binding agent. Select samples from phase II were subjected to Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) to compare microstructural properties before and after addition of NCaCO3. Phase I results showed that the UCS of samples containing NCaCO3 was low, even when SP was used to improve particle dispersion. Phase II samples exhibited up to 9.5% higher UCS after 28 days of curing at a NCaCO3 dosage of 6% by weight of binder. MIP results showed that samples containing NCaCO3 were less porous than the corresponding controlled silica sand backfill samples, which in turn influenced the UCS results.
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Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiří Bydžovský, Ámos Dufka
Abstract: The paper researches lightweight mortars based on a high content of alternative materials. 25 – 30% heating plant slag was used in order to modify the matrix. Fly ash agloporite (a lightweight aggregate produced by self-combustion from fly ash) was used as an aggregate. Mortars were exposed to the temperatures up to 1,250° C. Two types of cooling were carried out at 1,000° C; controlled slow (in the furnace) and by shock (in water baths of approximate 18° C). Developed materials were further analyzed by various methods: monitoring changes in an observation furnace, physical–mechanical (to determine strength properties), physical-chemical (phase composition - XRD) and microstructural (SEM).
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Authors: Jindrich Melichar, Vit Černý, Jan Fleischhacker, Rostislav Drochytka
Abstract: Aerated concrete is lightweight building material with excellent thermos-technical properties compared to its strengths, easy workability and economic efficiency. It is material with long tradition of manufacturing since 1924 but its potential is yet possible to be extended. Since the beginning pure ingredients such as lime and silica sand has been used. Nowadays we are looking for ways to replace these expensive raw materials with cheaper alternatives. One of the most important mechanical properties of each material is its strength. In case of aerated concrete the bearer of strength is mineral tobermorite. It is created by reaction of silicon oxides and lime at hydrothermal conditions. It belongs to the group of calcium hydrosilicates with chemical formula Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O. Main goal of this paper is proposal for modification of the raw materials composition and autoclave regime of aerated concrete using aluminium hydroxide in order to improve final mechanical properties and mineralogical composition.
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Authors: Hui Ting Liu, Jian Zhou Jin, Yong Jin Yu, Shuo Qiong Liu
Abstract: The improvement of strength and ductility is a challenging task for application of oil well cement. As a 2D nanomaterial with high strength and toughness, graphene oxide (GO) was used as a reinforcing additive in oil well cement. The mechanical properties and micro-structure of oil well cement enhanced by GO were investigated. The compressive strength and flexrual strenghth of cement stone both showed a good enhancement effect when the content of GO was 0.02% -0.05%. The compressive strength and flexrual strength could increase by 15.8% and 33.5%, respectively. The results of SEM and MIP revealed that GO played a template role in promoting the formation of hydration products and further filled in the pores between the hydration products, which refined the micro-structure and improved mechanical properties of the cement consequently.
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Authors: Manolo G. Mena
Abstract: Dendrites were observed in the failure of semiconductor sensor devices. EDX analysis showed that the dendrites grown from bare sensor dice consisted of tin metal. The tin dendrites exhibited massive and dense branches. Dendrites grown from mechanically decapped parts consisted of silver. The silver dendrites exhibited delicate, lace-like structure. Binary and grey scale images of dendrites were analyzed for fractal dimension number and branch density. The tin dendrites had a higher, statistically significant branch density number than silver, due to tin’s more intricate branching pattern. Fractal numbers can be used to differentiate between tin and silver dendrites, even in the absence of EDX analysis equipment.
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Authors: Shunjiro Fujii
Abstract: Semitransparent bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have attracted a strong attention due to the possible use in new photovoltaic applications. However, semitransparent BHJ solar cells on flexible substrates have not yet been developed. In this work, flexible BHJ solar cells were fabricated on an ITO/PET substrate using an inverted PET/ITO/PFN/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Au device structure. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device was 3.4 %. Fabrication of semitransparent solar cells was further demonstrated utilizing a MoO3/Au/MoO3 transparent anode. The semitransparent solar cell showed bifacial energy generation when illuminated from both front and backside. The PCEs with illumination from the ITO or Au/MoO3 side were 2.7 % and 2.1 %, respectively. These results showed that a semitransparent PTB7:PC71BM solar cell was successfully fabricated on flexible PET substrates.
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Authors: Masoud Al-Gahtani, Sunilkumar Pillai, Ahmad Al-Raddadi
Abstract: Non-metallic inclusions in API steel grades deteriorate steels’ mechanical properties and their resistance to hydrogen induced cracking. The formation and evolution of inclusion during liquid steel processing was investigated by analyzing samples taken from different stages of the steel making process in API X52 and X60 steel grades. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with automated feature EDX analyzer (INCAF 250) was used to identify each inclusion in terms of its size, area and composition. It was found that non-metallic inclusions in API X52 and X60 grades from steelmaking and casting samples were mainly Al2O3, Ca–Al and Ca-Mg-Al. In this work changes in inclusion composition, size and area fraction from ladle processing to casting were mapped and this information was used to improve steel cleanness and product quality.
217
Authors: Ji Zu Lv, Liang Yu Li, Cheng Zhi Hu, Min Li Bai, Sheng Nan Chang, Dong Dong Gao, Peng Wang
Abstract: Nanofluids is an innovative study of nanotechnology applied to the traditional field of thermal engineering. It refers to the metal or non-metallic nanopowder was dispersed into water, alcohol, oil and other traditional heat transfer medium, to prepared as a new heat transfer medium with high thermal conductivity. The role of nanofluids in strengthening heat transfer has been confirmed by a large number of experimental studies. Its heat transfer mechanism is mainly divided into two aspects. On the one hand, the addition of nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity. On the other hand, due to the interaction between the nanoparticles and base fluid causing the changes in the flow characteristics, which is also the main factor affecting the heat transfer of nanofluids. Therefore, a intensive study on the flow characteristics of nanofluids will make the study of heat transfer more meaningful. In this experiment, the flow characteristics of SiO2-water nanofluids in two-dimensional backward step flow are quantitatively studied by PIV. The results show that under the same Reynolds number, the turbulence of nanofluids is larger than that of pure water. With the increase of nanofluids volume fraction, the flow characteristics are constantly changing. The quantitative analysis proved that the nanofluids disturbance was enhanced compared with the base liquid, which resulting in the heat transfer enhancement.
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