Abstract: Сhemical interaction of cellulose with reactive groups of four-coordinate boron-nitrogen compounds is an intercrystalline process proceeding without destruction of cellulose crystalline structure; probably, the modifier molecules react with easier accessible hydroxyl groups of the amorphous cellulose regions. The formation of B-O-C ether bonds between OH groups of modifiers and more reactive hydroxyl groups of amorphous parts of cellulose results in redistribution of hydrogen bonds and, as a consequence, to rectification of cellulose macromolecules. Thus, when cellulose is treated with compositions based on four-coordinate boron-nitrogen compounds, crystalline structure of cellulose is not disrupted, hence this process can be called a "mild" modification. Such modification does not lead to accelerated aging of cellulose materials, rapid loss of strength and increases durability of wooden structures.
Abstract: Impact Polypropylene Copolymer (IPC) is one of the PP type which is widely used. IPC was made with addition of ethylene in PP which decreases PP crystallinity. Many efforts have been made to improve the properties of PP crystallinity by addition of nucleating agents. In this study, we use Arenga Pinnata “Ijuk” fiber as PP nucleating agent. In order to determine the effect of “Ijuk” fiber as nucleating agents in kinetics aspect, we used DSC measurement based on Avrami equation. The results showed that the addition of ijuk decreases crystallizationhalf timeand dimension of crystal growth which indicate the effects of “Ijuk” fiber as a nucleating agent.
Abstract: Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are known to have high hardness, temperature and corrosion resistance, while being comparatively lightweight. One of many external factors that influence the mechanical properties of CMC is the compaction pressure given during fabrication process. Generally, greater amount of applied compaction pressure will result in improved final product density and bending strength. In this research, a type of CMCs was fabricated using Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2 powder mixed with Nb2O5 additive of 81Al2O3-10SiC-5ZrO2-4Nb2O5 wt. % composition. Fabrication was done through mixing, compacting, and sintering process. Compaction was performed at 257, 308, and 359 MPa and finished with sintering process at 1400 °C for 4 h. Final samples were characterized by density measurement, 3-point bending strength testing, XRD for phase investigation, and microstructure observation using SEM-EDS. Results showing that samples with 308 MPa compaction pressure possessed the highest density and bending strength of 3.29 gr/cm3 and 14.91 MPa, respectively. These numbers however, declined on samples with higher compaction pressure of 359 MPa due to the formation of porosities caused by entrapped gas that failed to exit the sample of which compaction pressure was considered to be overwhelmingly high.
Abstract: The conduction characteristics of Polyaniline emeraldine salt-Graphite (PAni-ES/Gr) pellets were characterized using an impedance analyzer. The pellets were prepared with varying mass fractions of PAni-ES and Gr. FTIR spectra have the stretching vibrations for PAni-ES and absence of peaks for Gr. PAni-ES showed aggregated particles while Gr appeared as sheets and flaky structures. The composition of the pellets was differentiated in the AC conductivity values. The critical frequency representing the transition from frequency-independent to frequency-dependent conductivity decreases with increasing Gr content. Lastly, the frequency-dependent conductivity behavior follows power-law behavior reflecting possible hopping mechanisms and random resistor-capacitor network.
Abstract: Polyaniline emeraldine salt (PAni-ES) was successfully deposited on paper through layer-by-layer technique. In this method, a paper was alternately dipped in aniline monomer and an oxidizing agent for different dipping cycles. This process produced green PAni-ES on paper. The morphology of the samples showed polymeric networks with pores, fiber-like structures and aggregates. There is a transition from frequency-independent to frequency-dependent conductivities of the samples. The conductivity increased with increasing number of dipping cycles. The frequency-dependent conductivities follow the power-law behavior reflecting conducting network and hopping mechanisms. Lastly, the conductivities with frequency followed a scaling behavior reflecting a common physical mechanism in PAni-ES on paper.
Abstract: In this present work, an original 3D bioprinting method has been developed by modifying an exceptional 3D printer. Using a composite material, bioprinting was carried out to create the ideal scaffold material to contribute regeneration of the certain amount of tissue types in humans. After bypassing the extruder and heating system of the 3D printer, instead of using solid filaments, polymer-ceramic composite was dissolved using an organic agent and bioprinting was conducted. During the bioprinting, dissolving agent was evaporated quickly and solidification process was completed. Despite of the traditional 3D printing, which benefits from the glass transition temperature of the materials, regardless of the temperature, rapid prototyping technology has been merged with controlled flow rate of the composite solution and evaporation of the solvents were adjusted meticulously for proper solidification and layer by layer bioprinting of the scaffolds.
Abstract: To study the effect of addition purified cow bone (CB) powder (20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) in slurry suspension of retrograded rice starch (RRS). The composite sponges were used as in bone repair. The RRS-CB composite sponges were prepared from the mixture of RRS, CB and additive into distill water. The prepared samples were characterized including SEM, XRD, physical and mechanical properties. The results of optimized condition have shown the samples of 40 wt% CB that had the swelling rate as 102± 0.01%, area of expansion was 20 ± 0.03 % for 72 hours and the compressive strength was 64.35±0.05KPa. In addition, it was found that this content resulted in sufficient soft porous material, foldable by hand and self recovered body.
Abstract: Nowadays hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics are very important because increasing traffic accidents and ageing of the population. They can be produced from synthetic or natural sources with different production methods. The biggest negative issue of HA is being very brittle and unstable under pressure. Various materials are added for restoring these weaknesses, but there is not so much studies adding nano-ingredients for restoring the mechanical properties of HA. In this study, 5-10% nano-yittria-oxide is added to bovine derived HA (BHA) and to commercial synthetic (CSHA) as a control group. Physical and mechanical properties are examined. Results show that adding of nano-ingredients are really helping to mechanical properties of HA.
Abstract: This study is combined a 3D printing and Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) methods to fabricate a 3D PCL scaffolds for tissue engineering. Various kV values were applied to the different PCL solutions to investigate the effect of the voltage on scaffolds. The morphology of 3D-EHD printed PCL scaffolds were characterized by an Optical Microscope. 10 wt.% PCL up to 3 kV was obtained best sample to use for tissue engineering scaffolds.
Abstract: In current study the electrical properties of clinoptilolite/aluminium oxide/bovine hydroxyapatite composites (Cp/Al2O3/BHA) were analysed. Different concentrations of Cp and Al2O3 (5 and 15 wt% for both Cp and Al2O3) were added to BHA (70 and 90 wt% BHA) and studied after being sintered at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300°C for 4 hours under ambient conditions. The dielectric constant (ɛ'), theoretical dielectric constant (ɛ"), dielectric loss factor (tanδ), capacity and conductivity properties were measured on the frequency of 0.1Hz to 10MHz. As the experiment indicates the electrical capacity, loss factor and dielectric values of BHA, CSHA and Al2O3 are high at lower frequencies. While the composite materials, especially the 5wt% Cp and Al2O3 exhibits high stability, smaller amount of change and better conductive properties than pure substances.