Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2017

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Authors: James D. Oliver, Russ Kremer, Arnd Dietrich Weber, Kevin Nguyen, James Amano
Abstract: SEMI Standards charter is to develop standards that benefit the semiconductor industry. The SEMI organization has evolved over the last 40 years into an international organization with covering all aspects of semiconductor and flat panel materials and devices. SEMI Standards provides the framework for the development of consensus based standards documents. At present there are two published standards specific to silicon carbide, the first dealing with dimensions, properties and ordering information for SiC wafers, and the second defining a nomenclature for defects found on SiC: SEMI M55-0817 Specification for Polished Monocrystalline Silicon Carbide Wafers SEMI M81-0611 Guide to Defects Found on Monocrystalline Silicon Carbide Substrates Additional standards applicable to various semiconductor wafers also are available and new SiC related standards are being developed based on industry needs and volunteer participation.
Authors: Ian Manning, Gil Yong Chung, Edward Sanchez, Yu Yang, Jian Qiu Guo, Ouloide Goue, Balaji Raghothamachar, Michael Dudley
Abstract: Continuous optimization of bulk 4H SiC PVT crystal growth processes has yielded an improvement in 150 mm wafer shape, as well as a marked reduction in stacking fault density. Mean wafer bow and warp decreased by 26% and 14%, respectively, while stacking faults were nearly eliminated from wafers produced using the refined process. These quality enhancements corresponded to an adjustment to key thermal parameters predicted to control intrinsic crystal stresses, and a reduction in crystal dome curvature.
Authors: Masashi Sonoda, Kentaro Shioura, Takahiro Nakano, Noboru Ohtani, Masakazu Katsuno, Hiroshi Tsuge, Shinya Sato, Tatsuo Fujimoto
Abstract: The defect structure at the growth front of 4H-SiC boules grown using the physical vapor transport (PVT) method has been investigated using high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray topography. The crystal parameters such as the c-lattice constant exhibited characteristic variations across the growth front, which appeared to be caused by variation in surface morphology of the as-grown surface of the boules rather than the defect structure underneath the surface. X-ray topography also revealed that basal plane dislocations are hardly nucleated at the growth front during PVT growth of 4H-SiC crystals.
Authors: Nana Matsumoto, Hiroaki Shinya, Koji Ashida, Tadaaki Kaneko, Noboru Ohtani, Masakazu Katsuno, Hiroshi Tsuge, Shinya Sato, Tatsuo Fujimoto
Abstract: We investigated the run-to-run fluctuation in growth conditions of physical vapor transport growth of 4H-SiC boules through observations of surface morphology on the (000-1) facet of the boules. The boules, which were grown under the same macroscopic growth conditions, exhibited slightly different surface morphologies. This indicates that some microscopic growth parameters that influence the surface morphology fluctuate between growth runs. We have considered the C/Si ratio of the vapor sublimed from the source material as a major parameter and discussed the associated variations in the physical and surface properties of the grown crystals.
Authors: Jung Woo Choi, Jong Hwi Park, Jung Doo Seo, Jung Gyu Kim, Myung Ok Kyun, Kap Ryeol Ku, Young Gon Kim, Su Hun Choi, Won Jae Lee
Abstract: 6H-SiC single crystal was grown with simple modification in PVT process to investigate the aspect of resistivity change in crystal. The modified process consisted of a new initial step to get rid of impurities in the growth cell before the main growth of SiC crystal. The new step in the modified process was designed to consist of higher temperature than the growth temperature for sublimation of impurities. SiC crystal grown with using 2 times of impurities sublimation process (ISP) step exhibited lower variation of resistivity value on whole wafer than SiC grown using with 1 time. With implementation of new modified step in growth process, SiC single crystal with resistivity value above 103Ωcm could be obtained by simple PVT process and conventional low-purity SiC source material.
Authors: Su Hun Choi, Young Gon Kim, Yun Ji Shin, Seong Min Jeong, Myung Hyun Lee, Chae Young Lee, Jeong Min Choi, Mi Seon Park, Yeon Suk Jang, Won Jae Lee
Abstract: The crucible design having a stepped wall was introduced for increasing the growth rate of SiC crystal without metal addition in top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The numerical simulation confirmed that new crucible design to increase the solvent-crucible interface could definitely change the temperature distribution and increase the carbon concentration. The simulation result, SiC single crystals were grown with Si solvent at 1900°C using a normal crucible and a stepped crucible to investigate the effect of crucible design having a stepped wall. Grown SiC layers were analyzed using Optical microscopy and Raman spectra. The growth rate in the stepped crucible was finally 66um/h observed.
Authors: Kazuhiko Kusunoki, Kazuaki Seki, Yutaka Kishida, Hiroshi Kaido, Koji Moriguchi, Hironori Daikoku, Motohisa Kado, Takayuki Shirai, Mitustoshi Akita, Hiroaki Saito
Abstract: This study reports our newly developed technology for SiC solution growth. In particular, we succeed in completely suppressing solvent inclusions, which have been a serious technological problem peculiar to the solution growth method. Then, we fabricate two-inch-diameter 4° off-axis SiC wafers without solvent inclusions. Moreover, we performed their crystal defects evaluation. It was found that our wafers were low resistance n-type 4H-SiC and contain almost no basal plane dislocation. As a result, the superior quality of our solution-grown crystal was confirmed.
Authors: Koki Suzuki, Koang Yong Hyun, Toshinori Taishi
Abstract: We have succeeded in solution growth of SiC from Cr solvent without Si using ceramic SiC as the SiC source. The effect of the growth conditions, such as the liquid height in the crucible, on the crystal quality in solution growth of SiC from Cr solvent was investigated. For a liquid height in the crucible of up to 10 mm, the growth rate increases with increasing liquid height and the SiC crystals are a single polytype, while the growth rate decreases and the crystals are polycrystalline for a liquid height above 10 mm. In the former case, the balance between dissolution and transportation of the solute are comparable. The latter case is expected to be transportation limited because transportation of free C and Si atoms is inhibited by excrescent crystals in solution and the increase in the distance for solute transportation. In addition, a higher growth temperature leads to growth of only 4H-SiC.
Authors: Kazuaki Seki, Kazuhiko Kusunoki, Yutaka Kishida, Hiroshi Kaido, Koji Moriguchi, Motohisa Kado, Hironori Daikoku, Takayuki Shirai, Mitustoshi Akita, Akinori Seki, Hiroaki Saito, Shunta Harada, Toru Ujihara
Abstract: The dislocation behavior during bulk crystal growth on the 4H-SiC (000-1) C-face using the solution method was investigated. A 2 inch wafer with a 4° off angle was fabricated from a bulk crystal grown by the TSSG method, and the dislocations in the crystal were evaluated using synchrotron X-ray topography and TEM observation. From the topograph images, it was found that the TSD density remarkably decreased as the growth progressed. Furthermore, the TEM observation suggested that TSD decreases as the threading dislocations convert to in-plane defects toward the center of the crystal. Conventionally, it was considered that conversion of threading dislocations hardly occurs in solution growth on the C-face. However, it is thought that this phenomenon was not observable because the conversion efficiency is remarkably low. We speculate that dislocations may be transformed by suddenly making macrosteps during bulk growth.

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