Abstract: This study presents how Nb addition allowed improving the Charpy impact toughness of a martensitic stainless steel by comparing a conventional AISI410 (12%Cr-0.1%C) and a 12%Cr-0.1%C-0.1%Nb steel after the same austenitization and quenching heat treatment. Adding niobium decreased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature by 100°C with respect to the Nb-free steel. To identify quantitative fracture criteria for the two materials, the values of critical cleavage fracture stress were determined by the local approach to fracture, combining low temperature tensile tests on notched specimens and mechanical analysis by the finite element method. The main effects of niobium were to refine the grain size and to promote retained austenite films, resulting in a similar resistance to cleavage crack initiation but in a strong improvement of the ductile-to-brittle transition behavior by increasing the resistance to cleavage crack propagation.
Abstract: One industrially C-Mn steel was studied in the present work. The Mn pre-partitioning process during continuous annealing was used. The results showed that the stability of retained austenite is increased because of the Mn pre-partitioning. The amount of retained austenite was about 5%, when increase the partition time to 100s. With the increase of the partition time, the amount of retained austenite increases, the tensile strength decreases, the yield strength and elongation both increase. Compared with quenching and tempering (Q&T) process, the tested steel after pre-partitioning quenching and partitioning (PQ&P) process has higher uniform elongation and the product of strength and elongation (UTS×TEL).
Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nanometric grain size has been produced by means of low-energy mechanical alloying (LEMA) of steel powder (Fe-14Cr-1W-0.4Ti) mixed with Y2O3 particles (0.3 wt%) and successive hot extrusion (HE). The material has equiaxed grains (mean size of 400 nm) and dislocation density of 4 x 1012 m-2, and exhibits superior mechanical properties with respect the unreinforced steel. The mechanical behavior has been compared with that of ODS steels prepared by means of the most common process, high-energy mechanical alloying (HEMA), consolidation through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion (HE), annealing around 1100 °C for 1-2 hours, which produces a bimodal grain size distribution. The strengthening mechanisms have been examined and discussed to explain the different behavior.
Abstract: Hydrogen is increasingly considered as fuel for future mobility or for stationary applications. However, the safe distribution and storage of pure hydrogen is only possible with suitable materials. Interstitially dissolved hydrogen atoms in the lattice of numerous metals are responsible for hydrogen embrittlement (HE). If hydrogen is introduced by an external source, it is called hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE). Commonly, steels like AISI 316L with a high resistance to HEE include a large number of alloying elements and in high amount. High alloying levels result in a decrease of cost-efficiency. Therefore, the systematic investigation of lean-alloyed austenitic stainless steels is necessary in order to understand the mechanism of HEE. For that purpose, the steel grades AISI 304L and AISI 316L are selected in this work. Tensile tests in air and 400 bar hydrogen gas atmospheres are performed. After tensile testing in H, AISI 304L revealed secondary cracks at the specimen surface, which are related to the local austenite stability, which in turn is affected by the level of micro-segregation. The microstructural investigations of the crack environment directly contribute to the understanding of the micro-mechanisms of HEE. Property-maps generated from experimentally measured distributions of alloying elements allow to correlate the impact of micro-segregations on the local austenite stability. It is shown, that local segregation-bands affect the initiation and propagation of secondary cracks. In this context, the local austenite stability which is significantly affected by the Ni distribution will be discussed in detail by comparison of the metastable austenitic steel grades AISI 304L and AISI 316L.
Abstract: Multipass arc welding is commonly used for thick plates assemblies in shipbuilding. Sever thermal cycles induced by the process generate inhomogeneous plastic deformation and residual stresses. Metallurgical transformations contribute at each pass to the residual stress evolution. Since residual stresses can be detrimental to the performance of the welded product, their estimation is essential and numerical modelling is useful to predict them. Finite element analysis of multipass welding of a high strength steel is achieved with a special emphasis on mechanical and metallurgical effects on residual stress. A welding mock-up was specially designed for experimental measurements of in-depth residual stresses using contour method and deep hole drilling and to provide a simplified case for simulation. The computed results are discussed through a comparison with experimental measurements.
Abstract: Non-oriented electrical steel sheets are the most commonly used material for the manufacturing of magnetic cores for electric motors and generators. The microstructure and texture of the steel after final annealing have a significant effect on the magnetic properties of the lamination core. To investigate the effect of cold rolling and annealing on the magnetic properties of the steel sheets, a 0.9 wt% Si non-oriented electrical steel was cold rolled at different angles to the hot rolling direction (HRD) and annealed at various temperatures (600°C to 750°C) to produce dissimilar microstructures. The progress of recrystallization was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and the magnetic response of the steel at various stages of recrystallization was evaluated by magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN). A number of MBN parameters, e.g. the root mean square, the smoothed envelope, the peak, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the envelope, the time integral of the MBN signals and the MBN energy, were analyzed with respect to the fraction of recrystallization during annealing. The results show that cold rolling at different angles to the hot rolling direction induces various deformation microstructures and stored energies, which, in turn, lead to considerably different recrystallization behaviours during annealing. The difference in recrystallization of these materials is also reflected in the MBN parameters.
Abstract: In this study, dynamic temperature field in a dissimilar steel joint specimen was numerically analyzed by means of three-dimensional explicit finite element analysis. Fully coupled thermal stress analysis was performed by using FE-code Abaqus/Explicit ver. 6.12. It was assumed that 90% of the plastic work was transferred to heat. Furthermore, dynamic loading tests were conducted with three-point bending specimen extracted from the dissimilar steel joint between a mild steel and a high tensile strength class steel. The specimen included a U-shape notch in the bonded interface. A high-speed infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field near the bonded interface. The temperature field was recorded at a frame rate of 200 Hz during the dynamic loading test. The numerically calculated temperature field near bonded interface showed reasonable agreement with the temperature field measured by the high-speed infrared thermography. The temperature in the soft steel particularly increased during the dynamic loading. On the other hand, the increase in temperature in the hard steel area was relatively few.
Abstract: In the last years numerous works have been done to try to reduce car weight in order to decrease CO2 emissions. In this line, Low Density Steels can be considered as one alternative in the lightweight approximation strategy [1-2] for the automotive industry. Generally, in low density steels, a considerable amount of Aluminum is added in order to reduce the overall steel density, but high Aluminum contents lead to processing drawback, that make it difficult to bring these new/lighter steel grades into the market. In the literature, different low density steel grades can be found but most of them are aimed at structural parts of the car, whereas almost none of them is aimed at forged components. In this research, different compositions of the three families of low density steels (ferritic, duplex and austenitic) were fabricated at low scale in order to try to understand the phenomena taking place in these steels, and try to find the best candidate for getting a low density steel suitable for forging in the upcoming research.
Abstract: The present investigation was made to study the effect of Al on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled medium-Mn TRIP steel (abbreviated as Al-TRIP). As a contrast, a Si-added medium-Mn TRIP steel (abbreviated as Si-TRIP) was also studied. Addition Al in medium-Mn steel can raise Ac3 temperature, which will restrain austenite transformation and expand the two-phase region, promoting Mn and C elements enriched in austenite. In-depth microstructure and mechanical properties analysis were carried out for the hot-rolled Al-TRIP and Si-TRIP steels in this study. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). Volume fraction of retained austenite was measured by D/max2400 X-ray diffractometer (XRD). A dual-phase microstructure consisting of ultra-fine grained intercritical ferrite (IF) and lath-like retained austenite (RA) with high mechanical stability was obtained after annealing at 630°C for 2h for Al-TRIP steel. As prolonging the intercritical annealing time, the stability of RA decreased primarily due to the increase of grain size. The tensile test results indicated that the Al-TRIP steel possessed a better combination of tensile strength and elongation compared to Si-TRIP steel. Excellent mechanical properties with yield strength of 790MPa, tensile strength of 1050MPa, total elongation of 35% and UTS×TEL of 39GPa·% was obtained for the Al-TRIP steel.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of Fe-28%Mn-1.5%Al and Fe-0.6%C-18%Mn-1.5%Al-0.07%Nb (all in wt.%) steels subjected to hot plate rolling at a temperature of 1423 K with a total reduction of 60% were studied. The steels exhibited quite different mechanical properties in spite of almost the same original microstructures and similar stacking fault energies. The yield strength and total elongation of the Fe-28%Mn-1.5%Al steel are about 260 MPa and 45%, respectively, whereas those properties in the Fe-0.6%C-18%Mn-1.5%Al-0.07%Nb steel comprise 350 MPa and 53%, respectively. The tensile flow stress vs strain curves of the hot rolled steel samples can be described by Ludwigson-type relations with parameters being dependent on the strengthening mechanisms. Frequent deformation twinning in the Fe-0.6%C-18%Mn-1.5%Al-0.07%Nb steel promoted the strain hardening and improved the strength and ductility.