The Effect of Heating on Phase Composition of the Cr3C2- Ti System Hard Alloys Fabricated by the Explosive Compaction of Powder Mixtures


Article Preview

The article reports findings on theoretically-calculated data and experimental results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods of the analysis of hard alloys produced by the explosive compaction of the Cr3C2 chromium carbide powders with titanium, first in the original condition and then after heating to 1200 °C. It was established that when heated to 600 °С the phase composition of hard alloys does not change and corresponds to the composition of the original components of the powder mixture. When the heating temperature was increased to 650 °С, new fine powder fractions emerged at the “chromium carbide – titanium” interface. At the temperature of 700 °С two separate diffusion layers emerged and grew in the opposite directions. Due to this growth the source phases in the alloy fully disappeared at 1200 °С and two equilibrium phases were formed.



Edited by:

Dr. Denis Solovev




V.O. Kharlamov et al., "The Effect of Heating on Phase Composition of the Cr3C2- Ti System Hard Alloys Fabricated by the Explosive Compaction of Powder Mixtures", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 945, pp. 617-622, 2019

Online since:

February 2019




[1] M. Ashby, H. Shercliff and D. Cebon, Materials Engineering. Science. Processing and Design. Elsevier Ltd, Cambridge. (2007).

[2] R. Prummer, Explosive compaction of powders and composites. CRC Press. Boca Raton. (2006).

[3] R.A. Prummer, Explosive compaction of powders, principle and prospects. Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 20 (1989) 410–415.


[4] L.E. Murr, K.P. Staudhammer, M. A. Meyers, Metallurgical applications of shock-wave and high-strain-rate phenomena. CRC Press. New York. (1986).

[5] A.V. Krokhalev, V.O. Kharlamov, V.I. Lysak, S.V. Kuz'min, Friction and wear on hard alloy coatings of the Cr3C2–Ti system over silicified graphite in water. J. Mater. Sci. 52 (2017) 10261-10272.


[6] A.B. Sawaoka, Dynamic consolidation of non-oxide ceramic powders. Physica B+C. 139 (1986) 809-812.


[7] A.G. Mamalis, I.N. Vottea, D.E. Manolakos, On the modelling of the compaction mechanism of shock compacted powders J. Mater. Process. Technol. 108 (2001) 165-178.


[8] A.V. Krokhalev, V.O. Kharlamov, S.V. Kuz'min, V.I. Lysak, Features for formation of solid alloys of chromium carbide and titanium powder mixtures by explosion energy, Russ. J. Non-Ferr. Met. 54 (2013) 522–526.


[9] H.L. Lukas, S.G. Fries, B. Sundman, Computational thermodynamics. The Calphad method. University Press. Cambridge. (2007).

[10] R. Gerlach, M. Utlaut, Focused ion beam methods of nanofabrication: room at the bottom. Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4510 (2001) 96.

[11] J.M. Cowley, Electron nanodiffraction. Microsc. Res. Tech. 46 (2) (1999) 75-97.

[12] L. Reimer, Scanning electron microscopy: physics of image formation and microanalysis, Springer. Heidelberg. (2013).

[13] D.A. Wollman, K.D. Irwin, G.C. Hilton, L.L. Dulcie, D.E. Newbury, J. M. Martinis, High resolution, energy dispersive microcalorimeter spectrometer for X-ray microanalysis, J. Microsc. 188 (1997) 196-223.


[14] L.A. Giannuzzi, F.A. Stevie, A review of focused ion beam milling techniques for TEM specimen preparation. Micron. (1999) 30 197-204.


[15] N. Yao, Z.L. Wang, Handbook of microscopy for nanotechnology. Kluwer academic publishers. Boston. (2005).

[16] R. Raghavan, K.C. Hari Kumar, B.S Murty, Analysis of phase formation in multi-component alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 544 (2012) 152-158.