Diffusion and Defect Studies in Zirconium and some of its Alloys
This book is divided into two parts: the first part describes diffusion processes, and the second part describes radiation damage to - and cold-working of - zirconium and some of its important alloys.
In chapter one, an examination is made of the various diffusion processes and mechanisms occurring in the base material and in the alloys actually used as cladding materials in nuclear reactors. In chapter two, grain-boundary diffusion in zirconium is discussed with regard to the applicability of various analytical solutions. It is noted that a non-linearity of the Arrhenius plots of alpha-zirconium poses problems when trying to calculate unique Do and Q values, and various explanations are given (chapter three) together with results on self-diffusion in alpha-zirconium where a non-linearity was also reported in the early eighties. Results for zirconium-tin and zirconium-niobium alloys are discussed, together with the diffusion of helium and tritium in zirconium and its alloys. No diffusion process can be completely understood without considering interactions between diffusants and defects. Some of the basic fundamentals of the defect interactions involved here are discussed and explained, for various models, in chapter four. In chapter five, the diffusion of molybdenum and cerium in beta-zirconium is discussed in detail. In chapter six, ‘cladding’ protection from hydrogen in organic coolants is discussed in terms of the diffusion-bonding protection of vanadium and zirconium. In section two (chapter seven), the defects which are introduced into zirconium and its alloys and which are responsible for various changes in their physical properties are discussed: covering radiation-induced resistivity and cold-working. Radiation-damage studies of zirconium and its alloys after neutron, electron and proton irradiation are reviewed. The effects of alloying elements upon recovery stages and dose curves, obtained by various workers, are covered and the nature of the defects migrating in stages I & III are discussed. In chapter eight, set-ups for studying isothermal and isochronal annealing following the cold-working and irradiation of metals and alloys are described.
Review from Ringgold Inc., ProtoView: Agarwala has enjoyed a career as an academic and research scientist, working and teaching in a number of institutions and agencies throughout the world, for some 50 years. His concise text covers an introduction to diffusion processes; grain-boundary and lattice diffusion of chromium and silver in zirconium; diffusion in zirconium and some of its alloys; defects interaction during diffusion; diffusion of molybdenum and cerium in beta zirconium; diffusion bonding in vanadium and zirconium; radiation-induced resistivity and cold-working; and setups for studying isothermal and isochronal annealing.