Carbon-Containing Layers on Silicon
The addition of supersaturated carbon to silicon or silicon-germanium thin films leads to a new class of semiconducting materials. This new material can alleviate some of the constraints on strained Si1-xGex and may help to open up new fields of device applications for heteroepitaxial Si-based systems. Basic growth problems, as well as the mechanical and electrical properties of Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy layers grown pseudomorphically onto Si(001), have been reviewed. The incorporation of carbon can be used (i) to enhance SiGe layer properties, (ii) to obtain layers with new properties, or (iii) to control dopant diffusion in microelectronic devices. The phenomenon of suppressed boron diffusion in carbon-rich epitaxial layers can be used to increase the performance of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). When compared with SiGe technologies, the addition of carbon offers a significantly greater flexibility in process design and a greater latitude in processing margins.
1. Introduction. 2. Growth of epitaxial Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy. 3. Mechanical and structural properties. 4. Electrical properties of C containing alloys on Si(001). 5. Highly concentrated pseudomorphic Si1-yCy layers. 6. Application of SiGe:C in heterojunction bipolar transitors. 7. Summary and outlook.
Review from Ringgold Inc., ProtoView:
Orston, of the Institute for Semiconductorsphysics (IHP) in Frankfurt, Germany, reviews the current level of understanding of Si1- yCy and Sil-x-yGeXCy layers grown pseudomorphically on Si(001). He addresses the incorporation of carbon for a number of different purposes, then proposes possible device applications for this new semiconducting material.