Abstract: In this research aims to study the damping characteristics of hybrid polymer composite, which can be used in engineering structures and in many other applications. Hybrid composites are namely Glass fiber and carbon filler reinforced with polyester and epoxy matrix have been prepared by vacuum bag molding fabrication technique. Then the free vibration test were conducted using FFT analyzer with Lab VIEW software. The damping ratio and natural frequency were investigated for fabricated composites. Then through ANSYS, the mode shapes and natural frequencies were determined and the results were compared with experimental results. The damping ratio increases with increased volume fractions of E-glass fibers for both the types of polymer composites. Vibrations are concerned to large structures such as aircraft, as well as small structures such as electronic equipments.
Abstract: Recently, graphene has played a promising role due to its exceptional mechanical and thermal properties and the broad range of applications. This paper reviews the synthesis of graphene and its use as fillers in polymer nanocomposites. The nanocomposites prepared by different methods have the wide range of applications, such as in energy storage devices, biosensor applications, automotive industries and electronic industries. Graphene can be prepared by different methods, for example, mechanical exfoliation, chemical exfoliation, electrochemical exfoliation and Intercalation compound exfoliation. The electrochemical method is environmentally friendly, however, the chemical exfoliation method is cost effective and suitable for commercial production of graphene. In oxidation-reduction method, the oxidation of graphite starts at point’s defects and the temperature has great effects on oxidation of graphite, at low-temperature oxidation is sensitive to impurities and at high-temperature oxidation increases with increasing temperature. Graphene can be incorporated into the polymer matrix by different approaches, such as in situ polymerization, solution, costing method, electrodeposition, and click chemistry method.
Abstract: Chitosan is termed as one of the useful carbohydrate oligosaccharides derived from chitin, which can be used to improve film packaging by hybridizing with silver due to their advantages of flexibility, easy scale up and low cost methods. Design of packaging material with non-toxic property becomes key issue. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize chitosan-silver nanocomposite film for effective packaging. The nanocomposite was synthesized using in-situ, co-mixing chemical method and air drying method. The morphology integrity of the nanohybrid was confirmed using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). TEM analysis revealed the cap shaped spherical morphology with no agglomeration and uniform size distribution of the nanoparticles within the range of 20.00 nm. UV-visible analysis showed Plasmon resonance band at 275 nm and 435 nm indicating the presence of chitosan and silver with no observable peak and an increase in intensity of chitozan. XRD confirmed the order and crystalline peak located at 2θ = 35ᵒ, 64ᵒ and 77ᵒ which have been keenly indexed as face centred cubic Silver nanocrystals. Thus, the nanocomposite film produced serves as an effective packaging material.
Abstract: Montmorillonite clay particles were decorated with silver (Ag) nanoparticles by chemical reduction of Ag nitrate with sodium citrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) confirmed the presence of metallic Ag on the surface of montmorillonite. The average crystallite size of the Ag nanoparticles obtained from the broadening of the 111 Ag peak ranged at 13-16 nm. On the other hand, the apparent particle sizes obtained from the SEM images were about 79-128 nm, suggesting that the nanoparticles are polycrystalline and possibly agglomerated. The increase in the concentration of reducing agent produced smaller Ag nanoparticles with narrower size distribution. The antibacterial test showed that the Ag nanoparticles, with mean size of 79 nm, adsorbed on montmorillonite were able to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with an antimicrobial index of 0.4.
Abstract: The surface of the magnetite nanoparticles has been engineered by the proteins available in the leaf extract of Datura inoxia. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study and by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the bonding between metal ions and the amide carbonyl group preset in the plant protein confirming the formation of core-shell structure. The plant protein coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles under investigation have an average size of about 14 nm (˂20nm). The isothermal magnetization curve of the ferrofluid appears in S-like sigmoid shape showing soft nonhysteretic magnetic behaviour at room temperature. The saturation magnetization (MS), remanent magnetization (MR), squareness (MR/MS) and coercivity value (HC) increased with decreasing temperature from 300 K to 10 K. The increment of magnetization (45 to 53 emu/gm) might be due to the decrease in thermal energy while the enhancement of coercivity (0-208 Oe) is attributed to the exchange interaction at the interface between the ferromagnetic (Fe3O4) and diamagnetic surface layer of protein on the nanocrystalline magnetite. The magnetization value is much smaller in comparison with the bulk magnetite (92emu/g) due to surface spin disorder also approves core-shell structure of diamagnetic protein layer on the surface. The results show the ease of the synthesis to reinforce the colloidal stability where the super paramagnetic behaviour has been found to be restored. The core-shell moiety could play an important role in biological systems as a means of storing Fe+3 for an organism.