Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 12

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Authors: S. Nagalakshmi, T. Sandeep, S. Shanmuganathan
Abstract: Delivery of drug through topical route, delivers most convenient and novel approach. The Skin can offer several advantages as a route of drug administration although its barrier nature makes it difficult for most drugs to penetrate in to and permeate through it. During the past decades there has been a lot of interest in lipid vesicles as a tool to improve topical drug delivery. Vesicular system such as liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes and elastic deformable vesicles provide an alternative for improved skin drug delivery. In fact vesicles can act as drug carriers controlling drug release. The Research findings were intended to develop sustained release of aceclofenac niosomes formulations in order to reduce gastrointestinal disturbances and to provide better effect when applied topically. Niosomes of aceclofenac was prepared by modified ether injection method using different ratio of surfactants (Tween 20, 40, 60 & 80) with cholesterol and drug. The developed formulations were optimized based on the high entrapment efficiency and in-vitro release studies. Optimized batch was selected and made in to topical niosomal gel using gelling agents like carbopol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. Formulation were evaluated for various parameters like vesicle shape, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, drug content, compatibility studies, in-vitro release studies and stability studies. Ether injection method was found to be most satisfactory in terms of niosome particle size, drug entrapment efficiency was found to be 88.68 ±0.64 % and in-vitro release studies showed 40% of sustain drug release at the end of 8 hrs of study when compared with marketed formulation. Hence, the formulated niosomal topical gel was found to be a better alternative when compared to the marketed formulation in terms of better efficacy, bioavailability and permeation.
Authors: Muhammad Khusairy bin Bakri, Elammaran Jayamani, Soon Kok Heng, Sinin Hamdan, Akshay Kakar
Abstract: This research focuses on the simulation of sound absorption coefficient of banana fiber and experimentation of sound absorption coefficient of banana fiber epoxy composites. For simulation, ‘Mechel’ empirical model was used to manipulate the flow resistivity and ‘Delany and Bazley’ empirical model was used to develop the prediction of sound absorption coefficient at frequency ranges from 500 Hz to 6000 Hz. For experimentation, two-microphone transfer function impedance tube model was used to analyze the sound absorption coefficient at frequency ranges from 500 Hz to 6000 Hz. Based on simulation, it is predicted and analyzed that the sound absorption coefficient of banana fiber found to be as high as 0.97 for the effects on the material thickness of banana fiber and 0.64 for the effects on the fiber diameter size and flow resistivity of banana fiber in the frequency ranges from 500 Hz to 6000 Hz. According to experimental results, it is observed and analyzed that the sound absorption coefficient of banana epoxy composites found to be as high as 0.11 for untreated banana epoxy composites and 0.12 for treated banana epoxy composites in the frequency ranges from 500 Hz to 6000 Hz.
Authors: Samvit G. Menon, K.S. Choudhari, Suresh D. Kulkarni, C. Santhosh
Abstract: A simple method for the separation of aqueous methyl orange, an azo dye, is reported, where CuO/CuAl2O4 nanoparticles synthesisedby co-precipitation methodwere used as the adsorbent. The presence of cubic CuAl2O4 (CAO) and monoclinic CuO phase of this composite material was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction and its specific surface area wasdetermined by BET nitrogen adsorption method.To study the nature of surface charge, theisoelectric point of the material was determined using the pH drift methodfollowing which the rate of decolouration was studied forpH 5and pH 7. Theexperiments in the absence oflight show that adsorption of the dye is prevalent even up to 6h leading to 86% decolouration.A methanolic extraction was effectivefor quantitative separation ofadsorbed dye fromCuO/CuAl2O4 nanoparticles regenerating them for reuse. The presence of methyl orange in the extracted solution and on the nanoparticles at various stages was verified byUV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopic methods.The extent of adsorption was quantified and found tobe as high as 86%. The catalyst aftercomplete extraction ofmethyl orange (MO),could be reused for the decolouration. Stability of the nanoparticles after reuse was verified by the closematch of XRD patterns ofthe pure and reused CAOwhich show no significant changes in itscrystal structure. The separation method shown here can be extended for the removal of other azo dyesfrom textile effluents.
Authors: Harshith Subramanian, Maheshkumar Jaganathan, Aruna Dhathathreyan
Abstract: Bio-templates such as proteins, lipids offer rich structural and functional diversity for the synthesis of nanoparticles by controlling their shape, size and orientation. In this work we have exploited a pH dependent folding-refolding feature of Horse Spleen Apoferritin (HsAFr) to synthesize copper and manganese oxide nanoparticles in a controlled manner. Two methods of preparation were used in this study. In the first method, Copper Sulphate (100 mM) and Manganese Chloride (4.8 mM) have been incubated with the protein and the pH dynamically adjusted for homogeneous incorporation of the metal ions into the HsAFr shell. The second study involved the incorporation of Cu2+ and Mn2+ inside HsAFr cavity and subsequent designing of nanoclusters of the respective oxides. UV, fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism (far-UV CD) spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the mineralization effect of the metal inside the HsAFr cavity. Size determination carried out using XRD suggested an average size ranging from 20-30 nm. The EPR of the nanoclusters show that incorporation of Mn2+ leads to a characteristic magnetoferritin behavior.
Authors: N. Manikandan, S. Muruganand, K. Sriram, P. Balakrishnan, A. Suresh Kumar
Abstract: The polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber has widely investigated as a sensor and transducer material, because of its high piezo and Ferro electric properties. The novel nano structure of PVDF has attracted considerable interest in the bio sensing and biomedical application. This paper deals with PVDF Tactile sensor. Basically The PVDF acts as piezoelectric effect which convert load into electrical signals. The tactile sensor has a main role for visual handicap and robotics. Any physical activities of robotic in all industrial the tactile sensor is a crucible role, whether it can left the object or handling glass parts pressure of object is main. The Sandwich type PVDF base tactile sensor has been fabricated using nanofiber. Using electro spinning method, the PVDF based nanofiber coated over coper the electrodes. In normal, the PVDF has α-phase and while applying electric pulse the PVDF polymer would be changed from α-phase into β-phase. Only in β-phase, the PVDF act as piezo electrics sensor and measure the piezoelectricity simultaneously measure pressure and temperature in real time. The pressure was monitored from the change in the electrical resistance via the piezo resistance of the material. The enhancement of PVDF properties has been carried by using SEM. The SEM image result showed that the size of nanofiber, the size of nanofiber is varied in the range of (180 nm-400 nm) with smooth surface. The X-Ray diffraction has shown that the PVDF was aggregated with the β-phase crystalline nature. Due to β-phase it was act as a piezo electric prosperity’s and its results are very high sensitivity.
Authors: Balpreet Singh, Himanshi Sharma, Barinder Kaur, Jaskaran Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Navalpreet Singh, Deepak Kukkar
Abstract: Highly porous crystalline luminescent metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized by conjugating Yttrium nitrate and Benzene Tri Carboxylate (BTC) in the presence of surfactant Cetyl Tri methyl Ammonium Bromide. A characteristic blue emission peak around 400 nm of Y upon excitation with UV light and peaks through Infra-Red spectroscopy revealed the formation of co-ordinate bond between Y and BTC, thereby confirming the formation of MOF nanoparticles (NPs). The nanoparticles were studied for potential removal of pollutants by encapsulation of the dye methylene blue (MB). Optical analysis affirmed the encapsulation of dye particles within the porous MOF NPs as dye absorption decreased around 600nm. This study offers great promise of using MOF NPs as platform for sensing of analytes in solution and removal of pollutant materials.
Authors: Tusharkumar K. Vaghasiya
Abstract: Highly Ag doped PVA (20%wt., 35%wt., 40%wt.) were prepared by chemical reaction. The transmission and reflection spectra were recorded by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer within the wavelength of 180nm-1200nm. The absorption has been evaluated by reflectance and transmittance spectra. Absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, optical conductivity and real and imaginary part of dielectric constant were calculated from optical spectra and plotted versus wavelength, it was shown that the adding of AgNO3 affect all these parameters by increasing their values. The optical band gap decreases with concentration of Ag increases. The diameter of doped silver nanoparticles has been estimated by assuming free particles behavior of conduction electron and calculated with the help of Surface Plasmon Resonance band of silver nanoparticles which is of the order of 14±0.5nm. Nearly symmetric shape and narrow FWHM of SPR band indicate that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. FTIR transmission spectra were recorded by single beam Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Spectrum GX, Perkin Elmer, U.S.A.) in the spectral range of 4000 cm-1-400 cm-1. FTIR spectrum peaks correspond to molecular vibrations and chemical bonds, indicate the presence of silver in the PVA polymer structure.
Authors: Rini Grace, Keerthana Sundar, N. Mohan, D. Selvakumar, N.S. Kumar
Abstract: A facile and sensitive enzyme based electrochemical transducer has been fabricated for the detection of organophosporus compounds. The enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, was covalently immobilized on gold nanoparticles deposited electrochemically over screen printed carbon working electrode. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. The enzyme-substrate reactions and sensing studies were carried out at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry. The developed biosensor gave optimum response within 25 sec. for a substrate (acetylthiocholine) concentration of 0.0699 mM at pH. The electrode showed a linear response in the range between 0.2 and 1 ppb, and the detection limit was determined to be 0.6 ppb. Moreover the biosensor exhibited good reusability and stability thus, making it a promising tool for on-field detection of organophosphorus compounds.
Authors: Tanvi Sharma, Harpreet Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Mandeep Singh, Navdeep Kaur, Mukesh Kanwar, Deepak Kukkar
Abstract: Tunable properties of porous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) make them a potential candidate for sustained release of functionally active biomolecules. Current study describes in situ encapsulation of anti-cancer drug, docetaxel in iron based MOFs for drug delivery applications. MOFs were synthesized using emulsification approach by mixing FeCl3.4H2O and benzene tricarboxylate (BTC) in 1:1 molar ratio in the presence of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Optical characterization of the NMOFs was done using UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. The peak obtained at 265 nm in the UV-visible spectrum indicated the formation of iron-based NMOF. The peaks obtained at 3416, 1623 and 3343cm-1 corresponding to C=O, C=C and C=O groups in FTIR spectroscopy further supported our observations. Microencapsulation of docetaxel was achieved by mixing the drug with the iron salt during the synthesis of MOF. Drug encapsulation was affirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Current study is an attempt in exploring the microencapsulation properties of MOFs.

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