Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 20

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Authors: Chin Wei Lai
Abstract: Design and development of nanostructure of titanium dioxide (TiO2) assemblies has gained significant scientific interest and become the most studied material as it exhibits promising functional properties. Nevertheless, formation of TiO2 nanocomposite thin film, especially WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotubes without bundling is essential for high efficiency in many potential applications, including photocatalytic oxidation related applications, solar cell related applications, electrochromic devices and sensing related applications. Thus, this chapter aims to summarize on the development of an efficient WO3-loaded TiO2 nanotubes catalyst for the improving the performance for charge carriers transportation and extended the spectral response of TiO2 to visible spectrum. In fact, coupling TiO2 with W6+ species will lead to an additional electronic state in the band-gap of nanocomposite thin film, which in turn affect a change in the electronic and functionality of TiO2 itself. As a result, band gap narrowing effects could expand the range of excitation light to the visible region and provide sites that slow down the recombination of charge carriers. To bring more TiO2 related applications to the point of commercial readiness and viability in terms of performance and cost, substantial research on the development of high efficient nanocomposite thin film (WO3-TiO2) is necessary. In this chapter, different synthesis strategies and research findings for WO3-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film as well as its prospects in potential applications will be reviewed in detail.
Authors: Hemlata Kaurav, Satish Manchanda, Kamal Dua, Deepak N. Kapoor
Abstract: In recent years, development of different types of nanocomposites have increased their utilization in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. The nanometer size range and unique composition make nanocomposites a beneficial alternative to any single conventional material. The present chapter provides a general overview of nanocomposites, discusses different types of nanocomposites such as metal, ceramic and polymer nanocomposites. The discussion is further focused on different nanocomposite based controlled and targeted systems developed for delivery of various drugs including anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and cardiovascular drugs.
Authors: Dolly Rana, Ashish Soni, Anita Sharma, Akash Katoch, Deepika Jamwal
Abstract: Recently, matrix such as polymer, graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the semiconductor nanoparticles plays a promising role due to their better structural, functional properties and broad range of applications in every field. This chapter reviews the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocomposites, their properties and applications. Furthermore, the importance of aforementioned matrix and their role in superior properties of metal chalcogenide nano composites have been discussed.
Authors: Ponnusamy Senthil Kumar, Elumalai Gunasundari
Abstract: The progress of nanotechnology and the resulting technological innovation has attracted the interest of researchers in the world. Most important effort isconcentratedon the capability to attain control of the nanoscale structures through inventive synthetic approaches. The significance of nanocomposites in different ranges applications including automotive, aerospace, marine, and construction, coating tissue engineering due to their excellent properties has led to develop the new design, material and processing technologies. Polymer nanocomposites provide prospectivefor improved mechanical properties, thermal properties, barrier properties and flame retardant properties than conventionally filled materials due to the higher surface area with nanofiller. This chapter was focused on the most recent growth in the area of nanocomposites and engineering applications. The type of nanocomposites and their fabrication techniques were explained.
Authors: Himika Gupta
Abstract: Nanotechnology has gained interest due to their wide applications. Nanocomposites are used in energy storage, water treatment, disease diagnosis, drug delivery system, food processing, health monitoring, pest detection and control, agricultural productivity and enhancement. In the present era, bulk use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides results loss in soil diversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests. In the present chapter, we reviewed the role of nanocomposites in agriculture to reduce the burden of fertilizers and pesticides.
Authors: Genene Tessema Mola, Xolani G. Mbuyise, Saheed O. Oseni, Wiseman M. Dlamini, Patrick Tonui, Elhadi A.A. Arbab, Kavi Kaviyarasu, M. Maaza
Abstract: Organic and inorganic nanocomposites have been successfully used in the preparation of thin film organic solar cells with the view either to enhance the harvesting of solar energy or to assist in the charge transport processes. The optical absorption, conductivity and environmental stability of the nanocomposite are the main criteria that determine the suitability of the material for solar energy application. This chapter discusses the properties of a number of nanocomposite which are widely used in the preparation of various types of thin film solar cells.
Authors: Manita Thakur, Deepak Pathania
Abstract: Gelatin- Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite (GT@ZPNC) and alginate- Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite (AG@ZPNC) ion exchangers has been prepared by sol-gel method. The nanocomposites are characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM results of GT@ZPNC and AG@ZPNC confirmed that after the binding of polymer matrix to inorganic part, morphology was completely reformed. TEM results confirmed the synthesised materials were nanocomposite in nature. The GT@ZPNC and AG@ZPNC ion exchangers have been explored to fabricate ion selective electrode for the detection of Cd (II) and Al (III) metal ions. Both ion selective membrane electrodes show wide working concentration and pH range with good response time.
Authors: K. Jacinth Mispa, K. Anusiya, P. Subramaniam, R. Murugesan
Abstract: Polyaniline-Zr(IV) tungstovanadate and Polyaniline-Zirconium oxide nanocomposite ion -exchangers were synthesized and physico-chemical characterization done by FT-IR-UV spectral studies, XRD, SEM and TGA. These composites are having high mechanical strength, good electrical conductivity and stability than their individual components. The organic polymeric component of the composites provides mechanical as well as chemical stability whereas the inorganic component supports the ion-exchange behavior and thermal stability. Both the inorganic and organic parts are jointly responsible for their improved electrical conductivity. They have more promising ion exchange capacity towards alkali metal halides and have selective adsorption towards Pb(II) ion and these can be used as powerful candidates for water softening
Authors: Swati Sharma, Ambika Verma, Ashok Kumar, Hesam Kamyab
Abstract: Magnetic nanocomposites are multi-component, nanosized magnetic materials, to generate the response to an external stimulus (i.e., outer inert or alternative magnetic field). The novel nanocomposites is a combination of excess of various materials such as liquid crystals, silica, gels, renewable polymers, carbon along with different magnetic particles. They have immense applications in the field of medical diagnosis and therapy, catalysis and separation. These nanocarriers are mainly classified into nanotubes, nanosheets, spherical nanoparticles, nanofibres, highly porous nanocomposites. The porous nanostructures provides a better surface for the entrapment or covalent binding of enzymes, proteins, biomolecules and drugs but the major challenge is to design and synthesize a desired structure with suitable surface properties and biocompatibility. Extensive attempts have been made to manipulate the mesoporous materials and its combination with other structure in order to synthesize a matrix with appropriate pore size, large surface area to volume ratio. “Bottom-up” and “Bottom-down” chemical-based synthesis methods have been widely employed to prepare magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic nanocomposites are synthesized from magnetic nanoparticles and biopolymers by using sol-gel technique, chemical precipitation methods and NanogenTM, a microwave plasma method. In this chapter, we described the advances and developments in the formation/synthesis of magnetic nanocomposites. This chapter will review the characteristics, properties and applications of the magnetic nanocomposites.

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