Cleaning of nanoparticles (< 50nm ) is becoming a major challenge in semiconductor manufacturing and the future use of traditional methods, such as megasonic cleaning, is questioned. In this paper the capability of megasonic cleaning to remove nanoparticles without inflicting damage to fragile structures is investigated. The role of dissolved gas in cleaning efficiency indicates that cavitation is the main cleaning mechanism. Consequently gas mass-balance analyses are needed to optimize the performance of cleaning tools. When gas is dissolved in the cleaning present tools can remove nanoparticles down to about 30 nm using dilute chemistries at low temperature. Ultimate performance is limited by cleaning uniformity, which depends on tool design and operation. However no tool reached the target of high particle removal efficiency andlow damage. Significantly lower damage could only be obtained by decreasing the power, at the cost of a lower cleaning efficiency for nanoparticles. The development of damage-free megasonic is discussed.