Hydrogen-Related Donors in Silicon: Centers with Negative Electronic Correlation Energy
The transformation of the shallow hydrogen-related donors, which have been formed in the silicon samples by irradiation of the low energy (300 keV) protons and following heat treatment under 350 0С or 450 0С was investigated. The experiment was carried out on Ag-Mo-Si Shottky diodes and diodes with shallow p+-n-junction. The concentration and distribution of these donors were defined by C-V-method at 1.2 MHz frequency. Using temperature dependence of equilibrium electron concentration it was established, that the hydrogen-related donors were charged controlled centers with negative electronic correlation energy (U<0). The transformation between both equilibrium configurations of the double hydrogen-related donor takes place when value of the Fermi level is arranged near Ec-0.30 eV. It was revealed that the donor transformation from neutral into double charged state have been stimulated by minority carriers trapping under room temperature when Fermi level was higher then level of the double electron occupation E(0/++)= Ec-0.30 eV.
B. Pichaud, A. Claverie, D. Alquier, H. Richter and M. Kittler
Y. M. Pokotilo et al., "Hydrogen-Related Donors in Silicon: Centers with Negative Electronic Correlation Energy", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 108-109, pp. 229-234, 2005