Development of Lead-Free Solder Composites Containing Nanosized Hybrid (ZrO2 + 8 mol.% Y2O3) Particulates


Article Preview

In this study, lead-free composite solders were successfully synthesized, with varying amount of nanosized ZrO2 + 8 mol.% Y2O3 particulates incorporated into 95.8 Sn – 3.5 Ag – 0.7 Cu solder. These composite materials were fabricated using the powder metallurgy technique involving blending, compaction, sintering and extrusion. The extruded materials were then characterized in terms of their physical properties, microstructural development, thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental results revealed that with the addition of increasing amount of reinforcements, the density values of the composite solders decreased, but there was no influence on the melting point of the composite solders. Thermomechanical analysis of the solder nanocomposites showed that the use of reinforcements lowered the average coefficient of thermal expansion of the solder material. Moreover, the results of mechanical property characterizations revealed that the addition of reinforcements aids in improving the overall strength of the nanocomposite solder. An attempt is made in the present study to correlate the variation in volume percentages of the hybrid reinforcements with the properties of the resultant nanocomposite materials.



Solid State Phenomena (Volume 111)

Edited by:

Cheng-Jun Sun, Jun Ding, Manoj Gupta, Gan-Moog Chow, Lynn Kurihara and Lawrence Kabacoff






S. M.L. Nai et al., "Development of Lead-Free Solder Composites Containing Nanosized Hybrid (ZrO2 + 8 mol.% Y2O3) Particulates", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 111, pp. 59-62, 2006

Online since:

April 2006




[1] Rao R. Tummala: Semiconductor International June, (2003).

[2] W. Gibson, S. Choi, T. R. Bieler and K. N. Subramanian: Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (1997), p.246.

[3] M. Abtew and G. Selvaduray: Mater. Sci. and Eng. R: Reports Vol. 27 Issue 5-6 (2000), p.95.

[4] D. C. Lin, G. X. Wang, T. S. Srivatsan, Meslet Al-Hajri and M. Petraroli: Mater. Letters Vol. 57 (2003), p.93.

[5] I. Dutta, B. S. Majumdar, D. Pan, W. S. Horton, W. Wright and Z. X. Wang: J. Electron. Mater. Vol. 33 Issue 4 (2004), p.258.

[6] S. M. L. Nai, M. Gupta: Mater. Sci. Tech. Vol. 18 (2002), p.633.

[7] http: /www. nanoamor. com.

[8] http: /emtoolbox. nist. gov.

[9] D.J. Lloyd: Int. Mater. Rev. Vol. 39 (1994), p.1.

[10] W. S. Miller and F. J. Humphreys: Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia Vol. 25 (1991), p.33.

[11] F. G. Yost, F. M. Hosking and D. R. Frear: The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Wetting and Spreading (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1993).

DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-1440-0_1

In order to see related information, you need to Login.