Simulation of Thixoforming: Comparison of Different Constitutive Equations
The behaviour of the semi-solid material is complex to simulate and many approaches are proposed in the literature to represent it. In this work, different constitutive equations are studied: the classical Northon-Hoff law, Joly and Merhabian’s one  and an innovative micromechanical model using homogenisation technique . These constitutive equations have been implemented in the FE code Forge2® to simulate simple forming tests, such as compression and direct extrusion. The load-displacement curves using the three constitutive equations are compared in order to estimate their capabilities.
C.G. Kang, S.K. Kim and S.Y. Lee
J. C. Pierret et al., "Simulation of Thixoforming: Comparison of Different Constitutive Equations", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 116-117, pp. 618-621, 2006