Simulation of Thixoforming: Comparison of Different Constitutive Equations


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The behaviour of the semi-solid material is complex to simulate and many approaches are proposed in the literature to represent it. In this work, different constitutive equations are studied: the classical Northon-Hoff law, Joly and Merhabian’s one [1] and an innovative micromechanical model using homogenisation technique [2]. These constitutive equations have been implemented in the FE code Forge2® to simulate simple forming tests, such as compression and direct extrusion. The load-displacement curves using the three constitutive equations are compared in order to estimate their capabilities.



Solid State Phenomena (Volumes 116-117)

Edited by:

C.G. Kang, S.K. Kim and S.Y. Lee




J. C. Pierret et al., "Simulation of Thixoforming: Comparison of Different Constitutive Equations", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 116-117, pp. 618-621, 2006

Online since:

October 2006




[1] Joly P.A., Mehrabian R.: The rheology of a partially solid alloy, Journal of Materials Sciences Vol. 11 (1976), pp.1393-1418.

[2] Favier V., Rouff C., Bigot R., Berveiller M., Robelet M.: Micro-macro modelling of the isothermal steady-state behaviour of semi-solid, International Journal of Forming Processes Vol. 7 (2004), pp.177-194.


[3] Spencer D.B., Mehrabian R., Flemmingd M.C.: Rheological behaviour of Sn-15%Pb in the crystallisation range, Metal. Transf. Vol. 3 (1972), p.1925-(1932).

[4] Cezard P., Favier V., Bigot R., Balan T., Berveiller M: Simulation of semi-solid thixoforging using a micro-macro constitutive equation, Computational Materials Science Vol. 32 (2005), pp.323-328.


[5] McLelland A., Henderson N., Atkinson H., Kirkwood D.: Anomalous rheological behaviour of semi-solid alloy slurries at low shear rates, Materials Science and Engineering Vol. A232 (1997), pp.110-118.


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