Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Behavior of Stainless Steel in Semi-Solid State


Article Preview

Thixoforming or Semi-Solid Metal Forming offers many advantages in comparison with casting and conventional forging. The purpose of the present study is to provide the basic microstructure and deformation data for austenitic and ferritic stainless steel under mushy state. As well known, the stainless steels solidify in different modes according to the different chemical compositions. In this paper, microstructural evolution of austenitic stainless steel type 304 which solidifies in FA mode ( L → L +δ → L +δ +γ →δ +γ →γ ),austenitic stainless steel type 310S which solidifies in A mode ( L → L +γ →γ ), and ferritic stainless steel type 430 which solidifies in F mode ( L → L +δ →δ )are investigated during partial remelting by way of SIMA (Strain Induced Melted Activation). The results show that A and F mode of stainless steels melt directly at the grain boundary without phase transformation during reheating. A banded structure, originating from the primary dendritic segregation of the original ingots, is observed in type 310S steel during further heating. On the other hand, a perfect globular and insegregative two-phase semi-solid structure L +δ can be obtained while heated beyond the banded three-phase L +δ +γ semi-solid state in FA mode austenitic stainless steel type 304. This spheroidization can be attributed to the peritectic reaction occurred in the L +δ +γ semi-solid state. In addition, simple compression tests of these alloys in semi-solid state for varied combination of deformation rate and deformation temperature are conducted to examine the deformation behavior of stainless steel. Flow stress curves exhibit abrupt change in various alloys, even though in the same alloy such as type 304, various flow stresses are observed according to the difference in inner microstructure or morphology. Stress of type 310S steel shows the most reduction as the deformation temperature increasing at the same strain rate condition. The Liquid is centralized to periphery by the compression force in all deformed test pieces. Fracture, observed in all alloys except type 304 steel in globular L +δ semi-solid state, should be resulted from the lack of liquid in L +δ +γ state of type 304 steel and solidification crack in type 310S and type 430 steel. Deformation of solid particles occurs only in L +δ +γ state of type 304 steel. Last in this paper, various deformation mechanisms are proposed for various microstructures.



Solid State Phenomena (Volumes 116-117)

Edited by:

C.G. Kang, S.K. Kim and S.Y. Lee




J. Y. Li et al., "Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Behavior of Stainless Steel in Semi-Solid State ", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 116-117, pp. 681-685, 2006

Online since:

October 2006




[1] B. Nohn, U. Morjan and D. Hartmann: Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf. on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Edimet Spa, Brescia, Turin, Italy (2000), —. 265.

[2] P. Kapranos, D.H. Kirkwood and C.M. Sellars: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, The University of Sheffield, UK (1996), p.3.

[3] P. Kapranos, P.J. Ward, H.V. Atkinson and D.H. Kirkwood: Mater. Des. Vol. 21 (2000), p.387.

[4] D.H. Kirkwood, Int. Mater. Rev. 39(1994), P. 173.

[5] Z. Fan: Int. Mater Rev. Vol. 47 (2002), p.49.

[6] Yanagimoto J. and Li J. -Y.: Steel Research Int., Vol. 76(2-3), pp.85-91.