Vacancy Clusters in Germanium
Fast neutron irradiation of germanium has been used to study vacancy reactions and vacancy clustering in germanium as a model system to understand ion implantation and the vacancy reactions which are responsible for the apparently low n-type doping ceiling in implanted germanium. It is found that at low neutron doses (~1011cm-2) the damage produced is very similar to that resulting from electron or gamma irradiation whereas at higher doses (> 1013cm-2) the damage is similar to that resulting from ion implantation as observed in the region near the peak of a doping implant. Electrical measurements including CV profiling, spreading resistance, Deep- Level Transient-Spectroscopy and high resolution Laplace Deep-Level Transient-Spectroscopy have been used in conjunction with positron annihilation and annealing studies. In germanium most radiation and implantation defects are acceptor like and in n-type material the vacancy is negatively charged. In consequence the coulombic repulsion between two vacancies and between vacancies and other radiation-induced defects mitigates against the formation of complexes so that simple defects such as the vacancy donor pair predominate. However in the case of ion implantation and neutron irradiation it is postulated that localized high concentrations of acceptor like defects produce regions of type inversion in which the vacancy is neutral and can combine with itself or with other radiation induced acceptor like defects. In this paper the progression from simple damage to complex damage with increasing neutron dose is examined.
A. Cavallini, H. Richter, M. Kittler and S. Pizzini
A. R. Peaker et al., "Vacancy Clusters in Germanium", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 131-133, pp. 125-130, 2008