Approximately 20% of the processing steps in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication involve surface cleaning and removal of photoresist and plasma etch residues. Continuous device minimization requires the use of thin films (<20 nm), closely spaced features, and ultra shallow junctions (<50nm); as a result, the challenges associated with effective surface cleaning are intensified. In addition, to insure high device performance, incorporation of alternate materials such as copper, ruthenium, and molybdenum, porous low dielectric constant SiO2-based insulators, and hafnium or zirconium oxides or silicates into device structures is taking place. Integration of these materials into working devices requires precise control of surface properties. In order to eliminate damage to films or substrates, avoid modification of surfaces, promote contaminant removal rates and enhance process control, approaches such as use of downstream plasmas, liquid cleaning with low concentrations of reactive chemicals, mechanical agitation, and liquid or particle jets have been implemented .