A Simulation Study of Magnetostrictive Material Terfenol-D in Automotive CNG Fuel Injection Actuation


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Magnetostriction is the deformation that spontaneously occurs in ferromagnetic materials when an external magnetic field is applied. In applications broadly defined for actuation, magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9) possesses intrinsic rapid response times while providing small and accurate displacements and high-energy efficiency. These are some of the essential parameters required for fast control of fuel injector valves for decreased engine emissions and lower fuel consumption compared with the traditional solenoid fuel injection system. A prototype CNG fuel injector assembly was designed which included magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D as the actuator material. A 2D cross-sectional geometry of the injector assembly, which incorporated both linear and non-linear magnetic properties of the corresponding materials, was modeled in ANSYS for 2D axisymmetric magnetic simulation. Subsequently, a 3D replica of the CNG flow conduit was modeled in GAMBIT with the resultant injector lift. The meshed conduit was then simulated in FLUENT using the 3D time independent segregated solver with the Standard k  , the Realizable k   and RSM turbulence models to predict the mass flow rate of CNG to be injected. Eventually, the simulated flow rate was verified against mathematically derived static flow rate required for a standard automotive fuel injector considering standard horsepower, BSFC and injector duty cycle.



Solid State Phenomena (Volume 154)

Edited by:

Marcin Leonowicz and Dariusz Oleszak






H.A. Chowdhury et al., "A Simulation Study of Magnetostrictive Material Terfenol-D in Automotive CNG Fuel Injection Actuation", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 154, pp. 41-46, 2009

Online since:

April 2009




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