The Effect of Germanium Doping on the Production of Carbon–Related Defects in Electron-Irradiated Czochralski Silicon
We present infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements on carbon-rich, germanium-doped Czochralski-grown (Cz-Si) subjected to irradiation with 2 MeV electrons. The study is focused on the effect of germanium doping on the production of carbon-related defects CiCs, CiOi and CiOi(SiI). For carbon concentrations [Cs] up to 11017 cm-3 the production of the defects increases with the increase of Ge content, for [Ge] up to 11020 cm-3. However, for carbon concentrations around 21017 cm-3 the production of these defects shows a decrease for samples with [Ge]=21020 cm-3 in comparison with those of [Ge]=21019 cm-3. The results are discussed taking into account the effect of germanium on the annihilation of vacancies and self-interstitials in the course of irradiations. In the first case, due to the temporary trapping of vacancies by Ge atoms in the course of irradiation, more self-interstitials are available for the production of carbon interstitials (Cs+ SiI Ci), leading finally to an increase of the carbon-related defects. In the second case, and for [Ge] of the order of ~1020 cm-3 or higher, Ge atoms tend to form large clusters. These clusters attract primary defects facilitating their annihilation on them. As a result, the availability of self-interstitials decreases, which finally leads to a decrease of the carbon-related defects.
M. Kittler and H. Richter
C. A. Londos et al., "The Effect of Germanium Doping on the Production of Carbon–Related Defects in Electron-Irradiated Czochralski Silicon", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 156-158, pp. 187-192, 2010