Comparison of Efficiency and Kinetics of Phosphorus-Diffusion and Aluminum Gettering of Metal Impurities in Silicon: a Simulation study


Article Preview

The efficiency of solar cells produced from crystalline silicon materials is considerably affected by the presence of metal impurities. In order to reduce the concentration of metal impurities, gettering processes as phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) and aluminum gettering (AlG) are routinely included in solar cell processing. Further development and optimization of gettering schemes has to ground on physics-based simulations of gettering processes. In this contribution we use quantitative simulations to compare the efficiency and kinetics of PDG and AlG in the presence of precipitates for interstitially dissolved metals, like iron, at different gettering conditions. Recently measured segregation coefficients of iron in liquid AlSi with respect to crystalline silicon are used in order to compare with PDG under typical conditions. It is shown that kinetics of both, PDG and AlG, can be separated into two regimes: (i) at low temperatures kinetics are limited by precipitate dissolution, and (ii) at high temperatures kinetics of AlG is mainly limited by metal impurity diffusion while phosphorus in-diffusion is the limiting factor of PDG.



Solid State Phenomena (Volumes 156-158)

Edited by:

M. Kittler and H. Richter




M.A. Falkenberg et al., "Comparison of Efficiency and Kinetics of Phosphorus-Diffusion and Aluminum Gettering of Metal Impurities in Silicon: a Simulation study", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 156-158, pp. 229-234, 2010

Online since:

October 2009




[1] A. Luque, S. Hegedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., England 2003, ISBN 0-471-49196-9).

[2] S. Myers, M. Seibt, W. Schröter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3795 (2000).

[3] S. McHugo, H. Hieslmair, E. Weber, Appl. Phys. A 64, 127 (1997).

[4] S. Joshi, U. Gösele, T. Tan, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3858 (1995).

[5] P. S. Plekhanov, R. Gafiteanu, U. M. Gosele, and T. Y. Tan, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 2453 (1999).

[6] P. S. Plekhanov, M. D. Ngoita, and T. Y. Tan, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5388 (2001).

[7] C. del Cañizo, and A. Luque, J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2685 (2000).

[8] M. Seibt, A. Sattler, C. Rudolf, O. Voß, V. Kveder, and W. Schröter, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 203, 696 (2006).


[9] V. Kveder, W. Schröter, A. Sattler, M. Seibt, Mater Sci. Eng. B 71, 175 (2000).

[10] F.F. Morehead, R.F. Lever, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 151 (1986).

[11] E. Spiecker, M. Seibt, W. Schröter, Phys. Rev. B 55, 9577(1997).

[12] W. Schröter, V. Kveder, M. Seibt, A. Sattler, and E. Spiecker, Sol. Energy Mater Sol. Cells 72, 299 (2002).

[13] M. Apel, I. Hanke, R. Schindler, and W. Schröter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4432 (1994).

[14] A. Sattler, PhD Thesis, Göttingen 2003 (Cuvillier, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-89873-856-6).

[15] D. Abdelbarey, V. Kveder, W. Schröter, and M. Seibt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061912 (2009).


[16] M. Seibt, D. Abdelbarey, V. Kveder, C. Rudolf, P. Saring, L. Stolze, O. Voß, Mat. Sci. Eng. B, 159, 264 (2009).