Controlled Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures
Recent interest in nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been driven by the excellent photocatalytic and optical properties exhibited by the anatase and rutile phases. This article highlights the relationship between reaction conditions and the resultant nanostructured TiO2 and is primarily focused on wet chemical synthetic methods. We show that solvothermal syntheses of nano-TiO2 can be rationalised by making use of a diffusion-controlled model accounting for physical properties of the solvent such as the vapour-pressure, allowing the prediction and control the phase, size and type of nanostructured TiO2 product. This external control makes it possible for the systematic synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures via parameters such as the solvent chain length, the reaction temperature and time, and also by the addition of surfactants, providing the ability to design and tailor the nanostructured TiO2, which is vital for the optimal application of these nanostructures in photocatalytic or optical applications.
Maria K. Nowotny and Janusz Nowotny
J. A. Stride and N. T. Tuong, "Controlled Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 162, pp. 261-294, 2010