This paper discusses a visual method of measuring the geometric parameters of ropes and evaluating their wear based on measurements of a three-dimensional rope model. The 3D model is created using the method of laser triangulation. Selection of appropriate geometry of camera and laser lighting arrangement allows collection of the height profile of the observed rope surface in the selected cross-section and, subsequently, building of a 3D model. The resulting model is a representation of the actual dimensions of the rope and allows determination of the parameters describing its basic geometric dimensions and condition of rope surface. Determination of those values and parameters allows estimation of the degree of rope wear. The article discusses issues related to resolution of the vision system, resolution of laser beam analysis, and resolution relating to the measurement of the height profile on the surface of the rope. Based on the model constructed in such a way, measurements are presented in order to assess the dimensional parameters and surface defects in sample rope structures. Based on tests and analyses of the three-dimensional model, a range of inspection tasks using 3D vision systems is indicated.