Intrinsic Point Defects in Silicon Crystal Growth
In dislocation-free silicon, intrinsic point defects – either vacancies or self-interstitials, depending on the growth conditions - are incorporated into a growing crystal. Their incorporated concentration is relatively low (normally, less than 1014 cm-3 - much lower than the concentration of impurities). In spite of this, they play a crucial role in the control of the structural properties of silicon materials. Modern silicon crystals are grown mostly in the vacancy mode and contain many vacancy-based agglomerates. At typical grown-in vacancy concentrations the dominant agglomerates are voids, while at lower vacancy concentrations there are different populations of joint vacancy-oxygen agglomerates (oxide plates). Larger plates – formed in a narrow range of vacancy concentration and accordingly residing in a narrow spatial band – are responsible for the formation of stacking fault rings in oxidized wafers. Using advanced crystal growth techniques, whole crystals can be grown at such low concentrations of vacancies or self-interstitials such that they can be considered as perfect.
W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler
V. V. Voronkov and R. Falster, "Intrinsic Point Defects in Silicon Crystal Growth", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 178-179, pp. 3-14, 2011