Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation of Oxygen in Si-CZ
We present numerical simulations of nucleation kinetics of vacancies and interstitials during RTA and we study the impact of annealing temperature on bulk micro defect concentration. Since the concentration of vacancies and oxygen and also its diffusion kinetics are significantly different inside Czochralski silicon, we assume the nucleation of vacancies and oxygen independent on each other. We show that different populations of voids formed during RTA can influence formation of oxygen precipitate nuclei. According to classical nucleation theory the homogeneous nucleation dominates around temperatures 500 °C while the calculation of oxygen diffusion into the voids shows that the oxygen clusters over the critical size can be formed above temperatures 700 °C. The nuclei concentration of BMD is thus the superposition of homogeneous nucleation below 700 °C and heterogeneous one prevailing above 700 °C.
W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler
J. Kubena et al., "Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation of Oxygen in Si-CZ", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 178-179, pp. 495-500, 2011