Modeling of Lifetime Distribution in a Multicrystalline Silicon Ingot


Article Preview

Lifetime distribution of a multicrystalline silicon ingot of 250 mm diameter and 100 mm height, grown by unidirectional solidification has been modeled. The model computes the combined effect of interstitial iron and dislocation distribution on minority carrier lifetime of the ingot based on Shockley Read Hall (SRH) recombination model for iron point defects and Donolato’s model for recombination on dislocations. The iron distribution model was based on the solid state diffusion of iron from the crucible and coating to the ingot during its solidification and cooling, taking into account segregation of iron to the melt and back diffusion after the end of solidification. Dislocation density distribution is determined from experimental data obtained by PVScan analysis from a vertical cross section slice. Calculated lifetime is fitted to the measured one by fitting parameters relating the recombination strength and the local concentration of iron



Solid State Phenomena (Volumes 178-179)

Edited by:

W. Jantsch and F. Schäffler




Y. Boulfrad et al., "Modeling of Lifetime Distribution in a Multicrystalline Silicon Ingot", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 178-179, pp. 507-512, 2011

Online since:

August 2011




[1] Nærland, T.U., L. Arnberg, and A. Holt, Origin of the low carrier lifetime edge zone in multicrystalline PV silicon. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 2009. 17(5): pp.289-296.


[2] Stokkan, G., Relationship between dislocation density and nucleation of multicrystalline silicon. Acta Materialia, 2010. 58(9): pp.3223-3229.


[3] Boulfrad, Y., et al., Modeling of Iron Distribution in a mc-Si Ingot Based on Thermal History, in 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition. 2010: Valencia-Spain.

[4] Information on http: /www. comsol. com.

[5] Istratov, A.A., H. Hieslmair, and E.R. Weber, Iron and its complexes in silicon. Applied Physics A (Materials Science Processing), 1999. A69(1): pp.13-44.


[6] Ramappa, D.A. and W.B. Henley, Diffusion of iron in silicon dioxide. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1999. 146(10): pp.3773-7.

[7] Meese, E.A., et al. Modelling of directional crystallization of silicon ingots - heat transfer and experimental validation. in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. 2004. Paris.

[8] Istratov, A.A., H. Hieslmair, and E.R. Weber, Iron contamination in silicon technology. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 2000. 70(5): pp.489-534.


[9] Stokkan, G., et al., Spatially resolved modeling of the combined effect of dislocations and grain boundaries on minority carrier lifetime in multicrystalline silicon. Journal of Applied Physics, 2007. 101(5): pp.053515-9.


[10] Donolato, C., Modeling the effect of dislocations on the minority carrier diffusion length of a semiconductor. Journal of Applied Physics, 1998. 84(5): pp.2656-2664.


[11] Rinio, M., et al. Measurement of the normalized recombination strength of dislocations in multicrystalline silicon solar cells. in Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology (2001).