Abstract: We present Nowick’s scientific background, professional development, principal achievements, and an assessment of his career.
Abstract: In the second half of the twentieth century and in the first decade of the twenty first century, many new phenomena came to light in the fields of condensed matter and of materials properties’ at low temperatures. A few examples of these phenomena are: the plasticity and the behavior of dislocations in solid helium-4 (a quantum solid), “high” temperature superconductivity, occurrence of superfluid flow in solid helium (“supersolid”), and, Bose-Einstein condensation of cold atoms. In this presentation descriptions and some discussions are given on the role played in these studies by ultrasonic and other forms of mechanical spectroscopy.
Abstract: Various calcium borohydride samples were investigated by means of combined measurements of thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry, and anelastic spectroscopy. On heating, the release of 2-5% tetrahydrofuran (THF) is detected in all the samples at temperatures below ~480 K, even in those which were previously thermally treated, according to procedures known from the literature, in order to remove the solvent. Dehydrogenation takes place above 480 K. Above room temperature the temperature dependence of the Young modulus of Ca (BH4)2 clearly monitors the release of THF and two irreversible structural phase transitions: from the α to the α’ phase around 460 K and from the α’ to the β phase, nearly completely evolved around 590 K. Moreover, the coefficient of elastic energy dissipation presents two dynamic processes below room temperature; a peak around 120 K characterized by an activation energy of 0.20 eV and a pre-exponential factor typical of atom-cluster relaxations, that we attributed to the dynamics of THF molecules retained in the borohydride lattice, and a peak around 200 K, possibly due to the relaxation of H vacancies.
Abstract: In recent years, we have investigated the grain boundary (GB) internal friction in high-purity Al bicrystals with a wide variety of misorientations of tilt and twist GBs. The main results are reviewed and divided into the following sections: (1) the origin of the GB internal friction peak; (2) the individual behaviors of different types of GBs; and (3) the coupling effect and compensation effect involved in GB relaxation.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline (n-) Au shows a large internal friction accompanied with the modulus defects above ~200 K. After the creep test, the strong <111> preferred texture changed to rather random one but the mean grain size was unchanged. In situ STM observation indicated that the crystallites can independently move during the creep deformation. Quasi-two phase state composed of solid crystallites and anelastic/viscoelastic grain boundaries (GBs) is proposed to explain these characteristic mechanical properties of n-Au. Further, GBs show the glass-transition-like change at around 200 K, anelastic/viscoelastic transition at ~30 MPa and dynamical state change above ~200 MPa. The high vacancy-type-defect concentration plays an important role on stabilization of the quasi-two phase state in n-Au.
Abstract: Mechanical spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of molecular dynamics of amorphous polymers over a large temperature range and frequency scale. In this work, by using high precision shear mechanical spectroscopy tool, we have investigated the segmental dynamics from local segmental relaxation to sub-Rouse modes in a series of amorphous polymers. We have demonstrated the existence of sub-Rouse modes slower than the local segmental motion in amorphous polymers. The sub-Rouse modes exhibit a similar change of dynamics at the same temperature TB ~1.2 Tg, as the local segmental relaxation through the temperature dependence of relaxation time and relaxation strength. Furthermore, the crossover relaxation time of the sub-Rouse modes at TB is almost the same for all the polymers investigated, i.e. τα'(TB) = 10-1±0.5 s, which is independent of molecular weight and molecular structure. This remarkable finding indicates that solely the time scale of the relaxation determines the change in dynamics of the sub-Rouse modes. According to the coupling model, the crossover is suggested to be caused by the onset of strong intermolecular cooperativity below TB. Hence the results suggest that the sub-Rouse modes and their properties are generally found in amorphous polymers by mechanical spectroscopy, and reveal the cooperative nature of the sub-Rouse modes.
Abstract: t is common knowledge that interstitial-interstitial interaction influence on the Snoek relaxation. We used a computer simulation of this effect in the Nb-O alloy to test the adequacy of various models of the O-O interaction and clarify the mechanism of this effect The energy calculations in the first twelve coordination shells have been performed by the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method as implemented in the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The energies have been calculated in different ways which vary in the method of determination the energy of non-interacting O-O pairs. The energies calculated on the various variants are similar but in one case there is O-O repulsion in all first twelve coordination shells, whereas in another one can see attraction in four of twelve shells. Internal friction Q-1 was calculated as a sum of the contributions from individual interstitial atoms in different environments, each of which being assumed to be the Debye function. It is assumed that long-range interaction of oxygen atoms affects the distribution of these atoms and the energy of each interstitial atom in the octahedral interstices before a jump and after a jump. The Monte Carlo method is used for simulating short-range order of interstitial atoms and for calculating values of energy changes. Comparison of the calculated temperature and concentration dependence of the Snoek peak with the published data showed that the PAW supercell calculation of the O-O interactions in Nb describes the behavior of the interstitial solid solution adequately. It proves also that the impact of interstitial atom concentration on the Snoek relaxation is connected to the mutual attraction of these atoms.
Abstract: We have used density functional theory (DFT) to determine binding energies (BE’s) of carbon-vacancy (C-v) point-defect complexes of probable importance to C-based anelastic relaxation processes in fcc iron alloys. Calculations are presented for three types of stable point defect clusters: C-v pairs, di-C-v triplets, and tri-C-v quadruplets. We demonstrate semi-quantitative consistency of the calculated BE’s with internal friction results on Fe-36%Ni-C alloys. The BE’s, which are in the range-0.37 eV to-0.64 eV, were determined for a hypothetical non-magnetic (NM) fcc Fe. The effect of the magnetic state of fcc Fe on some of these quantities was investigated by DFT and is shown to be significant; the BE’s appear to be reduced in antiferromagnetic (AFM) fcc Fe.