Paramagnetic Behaviour in RE2W2O9 Tungstates (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm – Gd)
Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a disordered state of magnetic moments above 4.2 K for all compounds under study, and a weak response to the magnetic field and the temperature for Sm2W2O9 and Eu2W2O9 tungstates. The temperature independent component of magnetic susceptibility has a positive value for RE2W2O9 (RE = Pr, Nd and Gd) indicating a domination of van Vleck contribution. Only for Gd2W2O9 the magnetization is a universal function of µ0H/T, characteristic for the superparamagnetism.
Yuriy Verbovytskyy and António Pereira Gonçalves
S. Mazur et al., "Paramagnetic Behaviour in RE2W2O9 Tungstates (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm – Gd)", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 194, pp. 112-115, 2013