Cleaning in Crystalline Si Solar Cell Manufacturing


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The large scale of production of modern PV manufacturing as well as the cost pressure demand a different approach to cleaning processes in semiconductor and PV applications. The subject of this presentation is, to highlight aspects of similarities and differences. Total added cost/m2 of Si are estimated for typical PV manufacturing conditions and compared to semiconductor applications. Typical technical solutions are reviewed. They are compared to the anticipated technical and cost requirements in the near future according to PV roadmaps and cell concepts which are evident today. Starting with typical cleaning processes during the wafering (sawing, cleaning, separation) up to cell processing (texturing, diffusion, coating and plating) the main cleaning processes are presented and their specifics are indicated. Finally recontamination and conditioning in production lines are reviewed.



Solid State Phenomena (Volume 195)

Edited by:

Paul Mertens, Marc Meuris and Marc Heyns




J. Schweckendiek et al., "Cleaning in Crystalline Si Solar Cell Manufacturing", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 195, pp. 283-288, 2013

Online since:

December 2012




[1] see e. g. SIA Roadmap 2004, Table 69a and 69b and respective notes.

[2] Calculated using data of: Robert McIlvaine and Alpa Bagga, The McIlvaine Company; Ultrapure water markets and technologies - http: /www. electroiq. com/articles/cr/print/volume-21/issue-1.

[3] Hartmut Nussbaumer, Franck Delahaye, Sebastian Patzig-Klein et al. Overview about solar wafer cleaning and texturing, CPTIC (2012).

[4] Analysis by FHG/IISB, Erlangen, Andreas Leibold.

[5] Davis Jr. J et al., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Ed-27, 677–687 (1980) after: Antonio Luque and Steven Hegedus (editors), Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering , p.192.

[6] Florian Buchholz, Eckard Wefringhaus, Gunnar Schubert, Metal Surface Contamination during Phosphorus Diffusion, in SiliconPV: April 03-05, 2012, Leuven, Belgium.