Electrically Inactive Dopants in Heavily Doped As-Grown Czochralski Silicon
To determine the electrically inactive fraction of As or P in heavily doped as-grown Czochralski Si 4-point resistivity and SIMS measurements were carried out. No clear trend for the electrical inactive fraction was found with an increasing dopant concentration, though a mean electrical inactive fraction of 11.5% for As doping could be determined.Experimental results on a dopant-vacancy complex in as-grown Si are scarce, hence temperature-dependent positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was carried out on several heavily As and P doped as-grown Si samples. The measured average positron annihilation lifetime τav is between 218 ps and 220 ps. No temperature dependent effect on τav could be observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that in the studied doping range the dopant-vacancy complexes do not exist. The reason for the inactivation of the dopant has to be found elsewhere. A possible explanation can be the formation of dopant precipitates.
L. Stockmeier et al., "Electrically Inactive Dopants in Heavily Doped As-Grown Czochralski Silicon", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 242, pp. 10-14, 2016