Mechatronic Systems and Materials VIII

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Authors: Mark Witkowski
Abstract: This address will briefly consider the challenges and opportunities that arise from the integration of affect into robotic systems. Six challenge areas are identified as of particular relevance to robotics engineers. The first challenge is to sufficiently refine the display of affect by mechanical devices to give the impression or appearance of emotional engagement. The second challenge is to recognise affect as displayed by others, most particularly by human users. These two challenges relate primarily to the presentation of affect, there are related questions about how to best use it. It is widely assumed, though unproven, that these will improve the acceptability of robotic devices employed in the social and service sectors. The third challenge is to understand what about affect that can and cannot be understood in scientific and engineering terms. Much is open to measurement and modelling, but some - such as the notion of feelings - remain highly problematic. The fourth challenge is to take that analysis and build affect fully into the social control system of the robot, leading to essential progress in robot autonomy and working towards our understanding of the role and mechanism of natural affect. The fifth challenge is to find profitable application for affective robotics. One potential outcome is to build an enhanced level of behavioural compatibility between human user and robotic device. The sixth challenge as engineers is to ever take care - to ensure that reality does not, and is seen not to, match the popular apocalyptic expectation engendered at every opportunity by dramatist and film maker for robots imbued with "emotions".
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Authors: Matthias Rehm, Johannes Quellmalz, Holger Schlegel, Reimund Neugebauer
Abstract: The paper points out a novel design methodology for electromechanical linear axis. It is based on common process parameters and an automated iterative solution algorithm. For the first time ever, different types of electromechanical linear axes can be compared. Furthermore, an optimum solution aiming a low moment of inertia ratio is the result of the design process. Using the example of a machining center, simulation and experimental results are shown. The performance of the process-oriented design methodology relating to additional design objectives is shown in this context.
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Authors: Nikos A. Aspragathos
Abstract: In this paper, methodologies are presented for the development of intelligent robot systems for the manipulation of linear and sheet like objects with low and/or very low bending rigidity. In the introduction the non-rigid objects are defined and classified considering their shape, bending rigidity and extensibility. The industrial and service applications of these systems are presented and the state of the art approaches for the manipulation of various categories of the non-rigid objects are presented. A brief State-of the-Art on the manipulation of the deformable objects with relatively low bending rigidity and presenting elastic behavior like foam, sheet metal is presented as well.The main part of the paper is devoted to the robotic manipulation of the sheet-like objects with very low rigidity such as fabrics and leather. Laboratory demonstrators accompany the presentation of the developed intelligent robotic systems for manipulation of non-rigid objects and the paper concludes with hints for the future directions of the research and development in robotic systems for handling non-rigid objects.
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Authors: Michał Ostaszewski, Kazimierz Dzierżek
Abstract: The article concludes with a thorough evaluation of an usefulness of suspension systems and chassis of Mars Rovers from Bialystok University of Technology and predictions for future Mars rover solutions. A development of technology and ever growing aspirations of mankind resulted in clear progress in the field of Mars exploration rovers. Competitions, involving analogs of Mars rovers, are increasingly more popular among academic societies. The main goal of mentioned initiatives, is to test possible solutions which, over time, may be used in rovers during extraterrestrial missions. The authors focused on a path of a Mars rover analogue development. In the first stage authors analyzed requirements of the University Rover Challenge organized by The Mars Society. Then the article concerns tasks that every modern Mars rover faces during its mission. Next authors considered Mars Rovers analogs designed and built in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Bialystok University of Technology. After application’s considerations, authors focused on suspension systems analysis. A major part of the article is a thorough structural analysis of suspension and driving systems of analog Mars rovers build at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology [1]. Then there is an comparison of the Curiosity (fig. 1) rover suspension [2] and internal frame with #next Mars Rover.
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Authors: Amit Ailon
Abstract: This study presents controllers for trajectory tracking for the kinematic model of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) subject to bounded inputs. The proposed controllers are based on smooth uniformly bounded functions that can easily be realized. Some results are demonstrated.
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Authors: Artur Stanisław Milewski, Łukasz Mierzejewski, Justyna Tołstoj-Sienkiewicz
Abstract: In recent years, an intense development in the mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or smartwatches can be noticed. Each of them is equipped with various peripherals [1,2], for example touch screen, GPS, Wi-Fi, accelerometer or Bluetooth module which give a lot of possibilities for engineering use. Control of an intelligent home, positioning clients at the shopping centers through beacons or translation of the speech in real time are just some of the practical uses of mobile technology. On the other hand, a noticeable growth in usage of mobile robots for specific tasks results in an increased demand for a dedicated controller that would enable an intuitive, convenient, and precise control of such devices. The document presents an unconventional way of differential control of the six-wheeled robot through an application on Android device using Bluetooth connectivity. This solution will be presented on an example of a #next Mars rover analogue [fig. 1]. The vehicle was built to participate in University Rover Challenge. This prestigious competition of Mars rovers occurs yearly in the United States on the Utah desert. Measured linear acceleration via the built-in smartphone accelerometer, allows to control the direction and speed of the drive motors and joints of manipulator. The author gives a solution to the most important problems in the presented control method such as correction of accelerometer error or a negative impact of temperature. It also provides solutions to accelerate the establishment of communication such as the inclusion of bluetooth while lunching application or resuming it automatically after incoming call when communication app works in the background. The solution is confronted with currently the most popular ways of mobile robots control.
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Authors: Mihai Olimpiu Tătar, Claudiu Cirebea
Abstract: In this paper the authors present a mobile minirobot with a hybrid locomotion system. The proposed locomotion system combines the advantages of legged locomotion with the advantages of wheeled locomotion. Due to the proposed structure, the minirobot allows three ways of locomotion: legged, wheeled and combined. The paper describes the experimental prototype, the electronic components needed for controlling the minirobot and it analyses locomotion possibilities by using wheels and legs. The end of the paper presents the kinematic model for a single leg of the minirobot.
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Authors: Maciej Rećko, Justyna Tołstoj-Sienkiewicz, Paweł Turycz
Abstract: Presented paper focuses on design process of Soil Sample Retrieval System for simple on-board analysis of collected material and cashing it for further examination. System is created to be mounted on mobile robotic platforms to provide a tool suitable for sampling scientifically interesting sites in remote and even hazardous for human environments [1,2,4].Considered solution will be thoroughly tested during University Rover Challenge 2016 aiding #next team efforts to proof life existence in mock-up Mars surface setting located nearby Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville Utah. This procedure is one of challenge’s task that proves scientific usefulness of a built rover. It requires collection of unaltered sub-surface soil sample, preliminary examination and cashing it on-board for further analysis.The device needs to be capable of collecting sub-surface soil samples, then transporting gathered material to cash and experiment containers also embedded onto platform [3]. It uses a drilling technique similar to one used to crush concrete and hard rocks.Powder created during sampling is further transported via system of tubes powered with vacuum. In order to create under pressure system was equipped with high-efficient turbine capable of producing up to 45 kg of suction force. This new approach has never been used before during such competition. We believe it will provide much needed advantage during this task over other competitors.The system allows an equal distribution of collected soil into designated containers. They are fitted out with desired scientific equipment. In considered exemplary model there are three containers. One being equipped with pH sensor, second-a humidity sensor and third one for cashing unaltered sample for further laboratory experimentations. It can also be equipped with additional sensors such as black light emitter with CCD sensor to determine cyanobacteria presence.The paper consists of three parts. First one focuses on problem analysis [2,3], system design and preliminary tests description. Second one describes device manufacturing and tests. Last part consists of results analysis with a critical validation of presented solution and recommendations for further development.
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Authors: Gurvan Jodin, Johannes Scheller, Eric Duhayon, Jean François Rouchon, Michael Triantafyllou, Marianna Braza
Abstract: This article will address the modeling and control of surface embedded shape memory alloys (SMAs) for the camber modification of a hybrid morphing airfoil. An analytical model will be derived. The results of this models will be discussed and compared to the experiments. The advantages of this modeling approach will be highlighted and alternatives will be briefly revisited. This discussion will figure into the utility of these models in the sizing of a full scale prototype of a SMA actuated active trailing edge of an airfoil. Throughout this article the prototype specifications are detailed and the design choices will be discussed. Performance improvements stemming from the inherent nature of the SMAs will be analyzed. It will be shown in this article that through the use of forced convection the overall cycle time can be reduced.
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