Abstract: TiC-WC-(Ni,Co,Cr) cermets are potential candidates for the substitution of straight cemented carbides in certain wear applications. This work analyses the effect of Ti/W and Co/Ni ratios on the microstructure and abrasion resistance of this type of cermets. From a microstructural point of view, cermets in the (Ti,W)C-(Ni,Co,Cr) pseudo-binary region show uncontrolled (Ti,W)C grain growth and a high degree of contiguity of the carbide phase. A microstructural refinement is observed as the Ti/W ratio decreases, especially when WC precipitation occurs. Abrasion resistance in these materials is dominated by hardness.
Abstract: Ti (C,N)-based cermets with varying WC additions (Ti (C0.6N0.4)-36Ni-12Mo-1C-xWC, x = 0, 3, 6 and 9 wt%) were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy techniques. The microstructure and mechanical properties of all four Ti (C,N)-based cermets were investigated. Isothermal oxidation of all four cermets were also investigated in air at 800°C up to 100 h using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The grains of Ti (C,N)-based cermets became more homogeneous with the increase of WC content. The TRS and fracture toughness increased with the increase of WC content and then decreased when WC content exceeded 6wt%, but hardness decreased continuously with the increase of WC content. The oxide scales formed on the surface of all four samples during the oxidation process were porous and multi-layered, consisting of NiO outerlayer and TiO2 based innerlayer, respectively. The thickness of the oxide scales and oxidation rates increased with the increase of WC content, especially when the content of WC addition reached 9wt%. The cermet with 6wt% WC addition showed excellent mechanical properties and acceptable high temperature oxidation resistance.
Abstract: A common and straightforward method for the standardisation in electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) is the use of homogeneous reference materials prepared by various techniques such as by melting, sintering, high-temperature annealing and hot-pressing. The reference materials have to be analysed by independent methods accurately in order to define their “true” composition. For some compounds the preparation techniques are difficult because of their specific thermo-chemical properties (e.g. low diffusivities, high equilibrium nitrogen pressure, incongruent melting). In addition, many compounds show large homogeneity ranges with an a priori existing uncertainty in composition, contrary to what is generally preferred: to use compounds with a narrow homogeneity range (“line compounds”). For the latter, diffusional preparation techniques can be applied to yield diffusion layers instead of massive samples for standardisation. However, also single-phase samples with narrow homogeneity ranges can be prepared by diffusion, depending on the phase equilibria in the corresponding system. The presentation summarises efforts that have been made in order to prepare various reference materials for carbon and nitrogen standardisation of EPMA by various techniques. The boundary conditions such as phase stabilities, phase compositions and diffusion kinetics, which are important for their preparation to obtain well-defined reference samples are discussed. These samples were applied to various WDS/EPMA-based studies of phase diagrams and diffusion kinetics by means of Cameca SX 50 and SX 100 microprobes.
Abstract: NbC-xTi (C0.7N0.3)-10Ni-7.5VC (vol%) based cermets with 0, 5, 10, 15 or 25 vol% Ti (C0.7N0.3) were prepared by conventional pressureles liquid phase sintering at 1420°C in vacuum. Detailed microstructural investigation was performed by SEM, EPMA and XRD analysis. Sintering results indicated that the partial replacement of NbC by Ti (C0.7N0.3) had a significant effect on the carbide grain growth, microstructure, hardness as well as fracture toughness of the fully densified NbC-based cermets. The Ti (C0.7N0.3)-free NbC cermet was composed of homogeneous cubic (Nb,V)C solid solution grains, whereas core-rim structured NbC grains were observed in cermets with Ti (C0.7N0.3) addition. All sintered cermets with 15 vol% Ti (C0.7N0.3) were composed of a fcc solid solution Ni binder and a cubic core-rim solid solution (Nb,V,Ti)C phase with a Nb-rich core and a Ti-rich rim. 3.8 vol% of residual pristine Ti (C0.7N0.3) was present in the cermets with 25 vol% Ti (C0.7N0.3) addition. The 15 vol% Ti (C0.7N0.3) starting powder based cermet exhibited the finest average NbC grain size of 1.48 μm, with a core-rim structure and an interesting combination of hardness (1486 kg/mm2) and fracture toughness (8.7 MPa.m1/2).
Abstract: The paper describes briefly the historical development and presents in more detail solid-state properties such as hardness, heat conductivity, thermal expansion and mechanical properties of titanium carbonitride Ti (C,N), the basis of the hard phase of cermets. The metallurgy of Ti (C,N)-based cermets with respect to microstructure formation during sintering and the impact on properties are presented in more detail. The various influences such as W and/or Mo content, Mo/W ratio, C content and C/N ratio, binder phase content and binder phase composition (Co/Ni), sintering time, dwell time, alloy state of powders and grain size were critically evaluated and are presented in form of fracture toughness vs. hardness graphs. A table gives a reference list on the study of these influences. TRS data on cermets were collected and summarised in a separate table, too. The focus is put on grades which have the potential of being fabricated soon in industrial processes for production of cermet tools. Application examples for metal cutting, sawing and chip bonding are presented. In two final sections recent modifications and achievements such as graded microstructures, multicomponent binder, and hybrid microstructures are also briefly presented together with an outlook on the future potential of cermet applications.