Heat Treatment and Plastic Deformation of Non-Ferrous Alloys

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Authors: Przemysław Snopiński, Tomasz Tański
Abstract: Variation of hardness and microstructure evolution in a solution treated AlMg3 aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing and subjected to subsequent artificial ageing are investigated. The microstructure features of the UFG aluminium alloy are studied by light, electron microscopy and using X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructural observations showed significant grain refinement. After four ECAP passes microstructure consist of elongated grains with average widths of shear bands of ∼100 nm. A significant increase in the microhardness was observed in the ECAPed samples due to the grain refinement and strain hardening. Prior ECAP solution treatment and a short time artificial ageing can additionally increase the strength of AlMg3 aluminium alloy.
Authors: Mariusz Krupiński, Mariusz Król, Rafał Maniara
Abstract: The aim of the presented work is an effort to answer the research questions, i.e. how to determine the optimal supersaturation temperature for multicomponent alloys? What is the relationship between changes in the derivative curve of composites and the relationship between their chemical composition and microstructure? Searching for the right answer to the above questions was the basis for determining the scope and methodology of the presented work. To describe the phenomena that occur in the material during solidification under various conditions caused by the variable cooling rate and variable chemical composition it was decided to use thermal-derivative analysis methods. The mentioned method allows to accurately describe and interpret the kinetics of the crystallization of the tested materials. This method is often used in the search for new directions of modern technologies, attractive from both experimental and cognitive. This methodology allows to determine the relationship between crystallization kinetics and usable casting properties on the example of Al-Si-Cu alloys and other alloying elements.
Authors: Krzysztof Labisz, Tomasz Tański
Abstract: The reason of performing the investigations carried out in this work was to investigate the microstructure of the laser treated Al-Si-Cu cast aluminium alloy with the ceramic powder particles using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) for remelting, and/or alloying. First of all the feeding and distribution of the powder in the surface layer of the alloyed and remelted AlSi7Cu material. Very important issue is the determination of the laser treatment parameters, especially the powder feeding rate, laser power, and scan rate to achieve an enhancement of the layer hardness for ensuring this cast aluminium alloy from losing their working properties and to achieve the tool surface is more resistant to wear. The purpose of this work was also to determine technological and technical conditions comparison for the Al2O3 and SiC ceramic powder alloyed into the surface layer with High Power Diode Laser. There are presented also the investigation results about the determination of proper technical condition during the laser treatment, especially the laser head distance and shielding gas influence. The presented results concerns first of all the structure investigation of the obtained surface layer allowing it to achieve an enhanced hardness and wear resistance more resistant for work, special attention was devoted to monitoring of the layer morphology of the investigated material and on the particle occurred. Light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the microstructure of the obtained surface zones - the remelted zone (RZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ), the ceramic powder distribution and intermetallic phases occurred. A wide range of laser power values was applied and implicated with different laser scan rates. The powders in form of ceramic powders used for alloying were chosen with the particle size of ca. 60μm. This study was conducted to investigate the influence carbide and oxide powder addition on structure and mechanical properties as well the and structure changes occurred during the rapid solidification process. The investigation ensures to use laser treatment for alloying/feeding of ceramic powder particles into the surface of light alloys. The scientific reason of this work is the applying of High Power Diode Laser (HPDL) for improvement of aluminium`s mechanical properties, especially the surface hardness. As the main findings was determined that the obtained surface layer is homogeny without cracks and has a comparably higher hardness value compared to non-treated material. The surface hardness increases together with the applied laser power, the highest power applied gives the highest hardness value for the surface. Also the distribution of the ceramic particles is proper, but there a need for further modelling, because the hardness increases in general according to the laser power used so that the highest power applied gives to highest hardness value in the remelted layer, but for other powder amount or alloy the values should be determined separately, and more data would be necessary to create a model for the technique appliance. The practical purpose of this work is to analysis the impact and application possibility of HPDL laser surface treatment on the cast Al-Si-Cu alloys to deliver application possibilities for diverse branches of industry.
Authors: Mariusz Król
Abstract: The six Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Al alloys in as-cast state namely Mg-4.5%Li, Mg-9%Li, Mg-12%Li, Mg-4.5%Li-1.5%Al, Mg-9%Li-1.5%Al and Mg-12%Li-1.5%Al were prepared and analysed. These alloys have been subjected to the thermal analysis (thermal derivative-analysis and dilatometry study), and the subsequent thermal assessment, mechanical properties and microstructures were studied. The heating and cooling dilatometric curves characterise by a linear reduction (alloys with 12wt.% of Li) and linear increase (alloys with 4.5wt.% of Li) in coefficient of linear thermal expansion as a function of temperature. No transitions in the solid state occur. Based on results of thermal derivative analysis a crystallisation process of Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Al alloys was proposed. Addition of aluminium in ultra-light Mg-Li alloys shows considerably improved strengthening without a reduction in grain size. Increasing the lithium content causes in an increase of hardness.
Authors: Wojciech Pakieła, Tomasz Tański, Krzysztof Labisz, Katarzyna Pakieła, Zbigniew Brytan
Abstract: Increasingly high expectations for modern engineering, make the constantly being sought-after new processes giving traditional materials new, better features. Nowadays, next to the classic heat treatments, advanced technologies are being used increasingly, leading to much better results than ever before. The most commonly used technologies that allow for obtaining new, enhanced properties of various metal alloys in the area of surface engineering include, among others laser surface treatment. The main objective of this paper was to analyze the influence of laser surface treatment on structural change and mechanical properties improvement of Al-Mg alloy by VC alloying. The remelted layer on the aluminium alloy surface was obtained using high power fiber laser "Ytterbium Laser System YLS-4000". The surface sample was remelted using a rectangular laser beam (2 x 4mm) with a power of 3 kW (1.53e+4w/cm2). Scanning speed of the laser beam was 0.8 cm/s (0.48 m/min). The remelting area has been protected by the use of technical argon blowing. During the process, sintered particles of vanadium carbide with an average size of about 50-100 μm was introduced into the liquid metal. Ceramic powder in the remelting volume was fed with a pressure feeder (constant rate of 5 g/min). As a substrate, the ENAC AlMg3 alloy has been used. During the laser treatment, a composite layer with much better mechanical properties was obtained comparing the base material. The average hardness of the layer was about 19 HV0.1 higher than that of the base material. Chemical analysis, carried out with the EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) detector and transmission microscope revealed many undissolved powder particles used in the alloying process as well as those of Al8V5 precipitated in the Al-Mg matrix.
Authors: Tomasz Tański, Łukasz Krzemiński
Abstract: In this framework, an investigation of biomorphous composite materials was performed. The application of a natural reinforcement allows to obtain biomorphous composite materials. Pine wood samples were subjected to the pyrolysis process in order to obtain carbon char. The samples were subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition and the sol-gel coating process in order to obtain a titanium oxide and titanium carbide coating, respectively. Ti-gel carbon char samples were subjected to ceramisation. Pure carbon char coated with TiO and TiC was infiltrated with an Al alloy. The investigations of the obtained composite materials were performed using light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy for microstructure determination. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray analysis were performed, along with hardness and tribological tests. Crystallites were detected after infiltration of the porous samples with an Al alloy, which were up to several microns in size, depending on the selected coating. As a result of the investigation on coating samples, a significantly smaller presence of Al carbides was found. An increase of hardness and wear resistance of biomorphous composite materials containing the carbides phase was confirmed. The TiO2 coating prevents the occurrence of a reaction during the infiltration process and the formation of Al carbides.
Authors: Monika Karoń, Marcin Adamiak
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the microstructure and mechanical behavior of 6060 aluminum alloy after intense plastic deformation. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was used as a method of severe plastic deformation. Before ECAP part of the samples were heat treated to remove internal stresses in the commercially available aluminium alloy. The evolution of microstructure and tensile strength were tested after 1, 3, 6 and 9 ECAP passes in annealed and non annealed states. It was found that intensely plastically deformed refined grains were present in the tested samples and exhibited increased mechanical properties. Differences were noted between samples without and after heat treatment
Authors: Przemysław Snopiński, Tomasz Tański
Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of a heat treatment on the potential application of AlMg5Si2Mn die casting alloy as a substitute for wrought aluminium alloy products. The proposed heat treatment was intended to increase the workability of the AlMg5Si2Mn alloy, which is typically not malleable due to the presence of interconnected brittle phases. By disintegrating interconnected eutectic Mg2Si phases into fragmented particles and dissolving Mg-rich phases the workability was increased. Subsequently, heat treated samples were subjected to high-pressure torsion process. The microstructure of the heat treated and deformed samples were characterized using light and electron microscope. Hardness measurements were used to investigate the influence the number of HPT revolutions on mechanical properties.
Authors: Jarosław Konieczny, Zbigniew Rdzawski
Abstract: The work presents the results on the structure of CuNi2Si1 copper alloy. The alloy was treated in two variants: supersaturation - aging (variant I) and supersaturation - cold rolling - aging (Variant II).The structure of the CuNi2Si1 alloyed copper were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The TEM investigation showed in the Cu matrix after applying cold rolling after solution heat treatment, during aging at 600°C, causes the Ni2Si phase occurrence immediately after the begin of aging. Cold rolling (50% reduction) of the CuNi2Si1 alloy after supersaturation changes the mechanism and kinetics of precipitation and provides possibilities for production of broader sets of functional properties.

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