Structure and Properties of Biomorphous Al/C/TiO/TiC Composite Materials Reinforced with Charcoals Coated in ALD and the Sol-Gel Process


Article Preview

In this framework, an investigation of biomorphous composite materials was performed. The application of a natural reinforcement allows to obtain biomorphous composite materials. Pine wood samples were subjected to the pyrolysis process in order to obtain carbon char. The samples were subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition and the sol-gel coating process in order to obtain a titanium oxide and titanium carbide coating, respectively. Ti-gel carbon char samples were subjected to ceramisation. Pure carbon char coated with TiO and TiC was infiltrated with an Al alloy. The investigations of the obtained composite materials were performed using light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy for microstructure determination. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray analysis were performed, along with hardness and tribological tests. Crystallites were detected after infiltration of the porous samples with an Al alloy, which were up to several microns in size, depending on the selected coating. As a result of the investigation on coating samples, a significantly smaller presence of Al carbides was found. An increase of hardness and wear resistance of biomorphous composite materials containing the carbides phase was confirmed. The TiO2 coating prevents the occurrence of a reaction during the infiltration process and the formation of Al carbides.



Solid State Phenomena (Volume 275)

Edited by:

Prof. Tomasz Tański and Przemysław Snopiński




T. Tański and Ł. Krzemiński, "Structure and Properties of Biomorphous Al/C/TiO/TiC Composite Materials Reinforced with Charcoals Coated in ALD and the Sol-Gel Process", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 275, pp. 66-77, 2018

Online since:

June 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] E.J. Gibson, Wood: a natural fibre reinforced composite, Metals and materials. 8 (1992) 33-336.

[2] P. Greil, Biomorphous ceramics from lignocellulosics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 21 (2001) 105-118.

[3] R. Wagenfuhr, Anatornie des Hoizes, VEB Fachbucliveriag, Leipzig, (1980).

[4] P.W. Lucas, B.W. Darvell, P.K. Lee, T.D.B. Yuen, M.F. Choong, The toughness of plant cell walls, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 348 (1995) 363-372.

[5] T. Ota, N. Kinoshita, H. Miyazaki, Porous Titania Ceramic Prepared by Mimicking Silicified Wood, Journal Of The American Ceramic Society. 83 (2004) 1521–1523.

[6] P. Greil, T. Lifka, A. Kaindl, Biomorphic Cellular Silicon Carbide Ceramics from Wood: I. Processing and Microstructure, Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 18 (1998) 1961–(1973).

[7] C.R. Rambo, J. Cao, O. Rusina, H. Sieber, Manufacturing of biomorphic (Si, Ti, Zr)-carbide ceramics by sol–gel processing, Carbon. 43 (2004) 1174–1183.

[8] L.A. Dobrzański, M. Kremzer, K. Gołombek, Structure and Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced by Al2O3 Particles, Materials Science Forum. 591 (2008) 188-192.

[9] B. Tomiczek, B. Kujawa, M.G. Matula, M. Kremzer, T. Tański, L.A. Dobrzański, Aluminum AlSi12 alloy matrix composites reinforced by mullite porous preforms, Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 46 (2015) 368-376.

[10] T. Etter, P. Schulz, M. Weber, J. Metz, M. Wimmler, J.F. Löffler, P.J. Uggowitzer Aluminium carbide formation in interpenetrating graphite/aluminium composites, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 448 (2007) 1-6.

[11] M. Castro, Phase-field approach to heterogeneous nucleation, Physical Review B. 67 (2003) 035412.

[12] T.P.D. Rajan, R.M. Pillai, B.C. Pai, Reinforcement coatings and interfaces in aluminum metal matrix composites, Journal of Materials Science. 33 (1998) 3491-3503.

[13] T.M. Tseng, R.H. Huang, C.Y. Huang, C.C. Liu, K.L. Hsueh, F.S. Shieu, Carbon Felt Coated with Titanium Dioxide/Carbon Black Composite as Negative Electrode for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery, Journal of The Electrochemistry Society. 161 (2014).

[14] J.C. Joud, M. Houmard, G. Berthomé, Surface charges of oxides and wettability: Application to TiO2–SiO2 composite films, Applied Surface Science. 287 (2013) 37-45.

[15] J.W. Elam, G. Xiong, C.Y. Han, H.H. Wang, J.P. Birrell, U. Welp, J.H Satcher, Atomic layer deposition for the conformal coating of nanoporous materials, Journal of Nanomaterials. (2006).

[16] S. Deng, S.W. Verbruggen, Z. He, D.J. Cott, P.M. Vereecken, J.A. Martens, S. Bals, S. Lenaerts, C. Detavernier, Atomic Layer Deposition-Based Synthesis of Photoactive TiO2 Nanoparticle Chains by Using Carbon Nanotubes as Sacrificial Templates, RSC Advances. 4 (2014).

[17] J.W. Lang, X.B. Yan, W.W. Liu, R.T. Wang, Q.J. Xue, Influence of nitric acid modification of ordered mesoporous carbon materials on their capacitive performances in different aqueous electrolytes, Journal of Power Sources. 204 (2012) 220-229.

[18] T. Tański, K. Labisz, B. Krupińska, M. Krupiński, Analysis of crystallization kinetics of cast aluminum–silicon alloy, Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry. 123 (2016) 63-74.

[19] K. Landry, S. Kalogeropoulou, N. Eustathopoulos, Wettability of carbon by aluminum and aluminum alloys, Materials Science and Engineering. 254 (1998) 99-111.

[20] L. Zhengang, Z. Fu-Shen, W. Jianzhi. Characterization and application of chars produced from pinewood pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment, Fuel. 89 (2010) 510-514.

[21] R.K. Sharma, J.B. Wooten, V.L. Baliga, P.A. Martoglio-Smith, M.R. Hajaligol. Characterization of char from the pyrolysis of tobacco, J Agric Food Chem. 50 (2002) 771-783.

[22] E. Pippel, J. Woltersdorf, M. Doktor, J. Blucher, H.P. Degisher, Interlayer structure of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum wires, Journal of materials science. 35 (2000) 2279-2289.

[23] W. Lacom, H.P. Degischer, P.A. Schulz, Assessment and Control of Surface Reactions of Carbon Fibres in Light Weight Metal Matrix Composites, Key Engineering Materials. 127 (1997) 679-686.

[24] M. Yang, V.D. Scott, Interface and fracture of carbon fibre reinforced Al-7wt% Si alloy, Journal of materials science. 26 (1991) 1609-1617.

[25] A.P. Diwanji, I.W. Hall, Fibre and fibre-surface treatment effects in carbon/aluminum metal matrix composites, Journal of Materials Science. 27 (1992) 2093-2100.

[26] N. Sobczak, Z. Gorny, M. Ksiazek, W. Radziwill, P. Rohatgi, Transtec Publications, Switzerland, Mater. Sci. Forum. Interaction Between Porous Graphite Substrate and Liquid or Semi-Liquid Aluminum Alloys Containing Titanium. Materials Science Forum. 217 (1996).

[27] C. Selcuk, A..R Kennedy, Al–TiC composite made by the addition of master alloys pellets synthesised from reacted elemental powders, Materials Letters. 60 (2006) 3364–3366.

[28] Krupiński M, Krupińska B, Rdzawski Z, Labisz K, Tański T. Additives and thermal treatment influence on microstructure of nonferrous alloys. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2015:120: 1573–1583.

[29] M.H. Park, Y.J. Jang, H.M. Sung-Suh, M.M. Sung, Selective Atomic Layer Deposition of Titanium Oxide on Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers Formed by Microcontact Printing, Langmuir. 20 (2004) 2257–2260.

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.