Sustainable Materials

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Authors: A. A. Adewale, Abdullah Chik, Ruhiyuddin Mohd Zaki, F. Che Pa, Yeoh Chow Keat, N.H. Jamil
Abstract: Thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 doped with 8%Pm at Sr site were investigated using density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation. The transport properties were calculated based on BoltzTraP code at temperature range 300-1200K. In electronic properties study Fermi level were shifted to conduction band region due to high contribution 4f orbital in Pm. Present study thermoelectric figure of merit ZT result was 0.395 at 300K and 0.638 at 1200K. This shows a considerably good value of ZT for SrTiO3 as n-type oxide. Compared to previous work, ZT were at the range of 0.21 - 0.37 for temperature of 300-1000K in Pr, La, Ta and Ho.
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Authors: Treetep Saengow, Thanatcha Satitchantrakul, Rardchawadee Silapunt
Abstract: Recently, the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is widely studied to apply in sensing applications. This paper proposes the investigation of ME effect in the bi-layer plate structure, which is the structure that allows deformation in the thickness direction. Mathematical models of the ME coefficients are developed using the constitutive equations of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric. Two modes of interest include longitudinal-transverse (L-T) and transverse-transverse (T-T) modes. Applying the models to the nanolayer of Terfenol-D/PZT in the assumingly low frequency regime yields the optimal thickness ratio of 0.34 for both modes. The maximum ME coefficients for 5, 10, and 10 nm thick structures are equal but occur at different resonant frequencies. They are approximately 480 and 240 mV/Oe cm for T-T and L-T modes, respectively. The maximum ME coefficients of the Terfenol-D/PZT plate structure are sufficiently high for nanoscale magnetic sensing applications.
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Authors: Thida San Nwe, Matthana Khangkhamano, Lek Sikong, Kalayanee Kooptanond
Abstract: TiO2 (B) nanowires were prepared at 170 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C for 24 h via hydrothermal synthesis to evaluate the effect of temperature on phase composition and morphologies. The effect of reaction time: 24 and 72 h on the formation was also studied at 170 °C. All samples were calcined in air at 400 °C for 2 h. Phase identification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphologies was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that hydrothermal temperature and time played an important role in defining TiO2 phase composition and its morphology. For 24 h hydrothermal synthesis, at low temperature of 170 °C, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were formed, while at higher temperature of 200 and 220 °C, TiO2 (B) nanowires with averaged diameter of 49 nm and several micrometers in length were produced. Interestingly at 170 °C, by increasing reaction time to 72 h, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were completely transformed to TiO2 (B) nanowires with averaged diameter of 74 nm and 2-4 micrometers in length.
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Authors: Nasri A. Hamid, Z.A. Mohiju, Y. Abdullah
Abstract: The effect of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2 (Bi-2212) phase superconductor was studied. TRIGA MARK II research reactor with neutron flux of 2.00 × 1011 /cm2s was used as the neutron source. Results between non-irradiated and irradiated samples have been analyzed from the aspects of microstructure and electrical properties. In this work, the bulk samples were prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. Molar ratio of Bi2O3, Sr2CO3, CaCO3 and CuO were mixed according to its ratio into composition of Bi:Sr:Ca:Cu = 2:2:1:2. The samples were sintered at 840°C during the sample preparation process. Some of the fully synthesized samples were irradiated with neutron irradiation. Neutron irradiation has been proved to promote better flux pinning properties by introducing larger defects in various superconductor ceramics. Enhanced flux pinning centers in the superconductor is responsible in enhancing the critical current, Ic and critical current density, Jc of the irradiated samples. The samples were characterized through X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The transition temperature, Tc and the Jc were measured by using a cryogenic four-point probe system. The XRD patterns for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples show well-defined peaks of which could be indexed on the basis of the Bi-2212 phase structure. XRD patterns also indicate that irradiation did not affect the Bi-2212 superconducting phase. However, the enhancement of Jc was observed in the neutron irradiated sample and this indicates the effectiveness of .neutron irradiation in creating defects that acted as effective flux pinning centers for vortices.
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Authors: Kamrosni Abdul Razak, Dewi Suriyani Che Halin, Mohd Mustafa Abdullah Al Bakri, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh, Norsuria Mahmed, N.S. Danial
Abstract: This study is conducted to investigate the effect of different annealing temperature on the growth of Silver doped Titanium Dioxide (AgTiO2) nanocrystalline thin films.AgTiO2 nanocrystalline thin films on silicon wafer have been prepared by sol–gel spin coating. The thin films were characterized for surface morphology and phase analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The films prepared by titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor under pH of 3.5 ± 0.5 and with annealing temperature of 300, 400, 500 and 600°C for 2h soaking time. X-Ray diffraction shows that only Ag/TiO2 thin film annealed at 600°C have anatase TiO2 phase. From SEM micrograph, there are cracks and pulled out thin film from the substrate, which were gradually minimize as the annealing temperature increase.
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Authors: Mohd Firdaus Omar, Zarrul Azwan Mohd Rasid, M.A. Abdul A’ziz, Muhammad Firdaus Mohd Nazeri, S.A. Saidi
Abstract: In this study, radon concentration of 2D Titanium Carbide MXene Ti3C2 was studied by using an established radon monitor. A layered MAX phase of Ti3AlC2 was synthesized through pressureless sintering (PLS) the initial powder of TiH2/Al/C without preliminary dehydrogenation under argon atmosphere at 1350 °C. An elegant exfoliation approach was used to eliminates Al from its precursor to form a layered-structure of Ti3C2. Morphological and structural properties of this 2D material also studied. SEM images shows two types of morphology which is a layer of Ti3C2 and the agglomerates Al2O3 with graphite. XRD pattern reveals three phases in this material which is a rhombohedral Al2O3, rhombohedral graphite and rhombohedral Ti3C2 phases. Radon concentration for this material for five consecutive days explains the radiation level of this material is under the suggestion value from US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
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Authors: H. Haiza, I.I. Yaacob, Ahmad Zahirani Ahmad Azhar
Abstract: Magnetic magnetite, Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by Massart’s procedure were used to prepare water based magnetite, Fe3O4 ferrofluids without addition of any stabilizing agent or surfactant. The thermal properties and suspension stabilization of the ferrofluids were investigated by varying the magnetite, Fe3O4 nanoparticles concentration in the ferrofluids prepared. The thermal conductivity of water based ferrofluids prepared using five different volume fraction of magnetite, Fe3O4 suspension (0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.005) were measured at five different temperature, 25°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C in order to evaluate its potential application as heat transfer fluid. The results shows that the thermal conductivity of the ferrofluids are higher than the base fluid, and the thermal conductivity of the ferrofluids increased as the magnetite concentration in the ferrofluids decreased however reached its optimum for ferrofluids prepared using 0.01 volume fraction of magnetite suspension over 0.99 volume fraction of water. Accordingly, the thermal conductivity of the ferrofluids significantly increased as the temperature increased where 49.4% enhancement with respect to water were observed at temperature 60°C.
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Authors: Zi Neng Ng, Kah Yoong Chan
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) has gained worldwide attention due to its direct wide band gap and large exciton binding energy, which are important properties in the application of emerging optoelectronic devices. By doping ZnO with donor elements, a combination of good n-type conductivity and good transparency in the visible and near UV range can be achieved. Co-doping ZnO with several types of dopants is also beneficial in improving the electronic properties of ZnO films. To the best of our knowledge, the fundamental properties of gallium-tin (Ga-Sn) co-doped ZnO (GSZO) films were rarely explored. In this work, we attempt to coat GSZO films on glass substrates via sol-gel spin-coating method. The Ga-Sn co-doping ratio was fixed at 1:1 and the concentration of the dopants was varied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 at.% with respect to the precursor. The AFM image show granular features on the morphology of all GSZO films. All samples also exhibit a preferential c-axis orientation as detected by XRD. The XRD indicates higher crystal quality and larger crystallite size on GSZO thin films at 2.0 at.% and agrees well with the AFM results. However, the transparency and optical band-gap of the GSZO thin films degrade with higher co-doping concentration. The best electrical properties were achieved at co-doping concentration of 1 at.% with conductivity and carrier density of 7.50 × 10-2 S/cm and 1.37 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. At 1.0 at.% co-doping concentration, optimal optical transmittance and electrical properties were achieved, making it promising in the application of optoelectronics.
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Authors: T.Q. Tan, Mohd Sobri Idris, Rozana Aina Maulat Osman, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad Hambali, M.V. Reddy
Abstract: Phase pure olivine LiNiPO4 and doped LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1PO4 powders have been prepared by conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld refinements analysis reveals the formation of LiNiPO4 and doped LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1PO4 with high crystalline nature at high temperature of 950 °C and 1000 °C. The lattice parameters of doped LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1PO4 are significantly larger than LiNiPO4. It has been found out that the estimated crystallite size is in the order of nanometres for both samples. SEM analysis confirms that the particles have connected with each other in random shape and sub-microns size. The particle size has increased as small amount of Mn and Co are doped into LiNiPO4. The AC impedance spectroscopy measurements have revealed that the conductivity of LiNiPO4 is enhanced by around one order of magnitude by doping Mn and Co.
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