Weldability and Joining Characteristics of AISI D2/AISI 304 Steels Using Semisolid Diffusion Joining


Article Preview

The application of hybrid structures or components made of dissimilar metal offers the potential to utilize the advantages of different materials often providing unique solutions to engineering requirements. However, the joining of materials by conventional welding techniques becomes difficult if the physical properties such as melting temperature and thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials are different. In this study, a new process of joining semi-solid AISI D2 tool steel and AISI 304 stainless steel using a partial remelting method is proposed. Moreover, the effect of the holding time on the microstructural evolution was investigated. The processing temperatures for the thixojoining was 1320°C and held for 5, 12, 20 and 30 minutes, respectively. The results obtained from investigating the basic geometries demonstrated a good joining quality that differs from the conventional process of welding. Metallographic analyses along the joint interface between semi-solid AISI D2 and 304 stainless steel showed a smooth transition from one to the other, with neither oxides nor microcracking being observed.



Solid State Phenomena (Volume 285)

Edited by:

Qiang Zhu, Ahmed Rassili, Stephen P. Midson and Xiao Gang Hu




M. N. Abdul Razaq et al., "Weldability and Joining Characteristics of AISI D2/AISI 304 Steels Using Semisolid Diffusion Joining", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 285, pp. 115-120, 2019

Online since:

January 2019




* - Corresponding Author

[1] R. Sekharbabu, H. K. Rafi, and K. P. Rao, Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel," Materials& Design, 50 (2013) 543–550.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.03.042

[2] M. Pleterski, J., Tušek, T. Muhic, & L. Kosec,.Laser Cladding of Cold-Work Tool Steel by Pulse Shaping.Journal of Materials Science & Technology, (2011) 27(8), 707–713.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1005-0302(11)60130-8

[3] M.N. Mohammed, M.Z. Omar, M.S. Salleh, K.S. Alhawari, Study on Thixojoining Process using Partial Remelting Method, journal Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2013(2013) 1-8,10.1155/2013/251472.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/251472

[4] M. Kiuchi and R. Kopp, Mushy/semi-solid metal forming technology—present and future," CIRPAnnals—Manufacturing Technology, 51(2) (2002)653–670.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0007-8506(07)61705-3

[5] M. N. Mohammed, M. Z. Omar, M. S. Salleh, K. S. Alhawari, and P. Kapranos, Semisolid Metal Processing Techniques for Nondendritic Feedstock Production, The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 752175, 16 pages, 2013..

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/752175

[6] K. S. Alhawari, M. Z. Omar, M.J. Ghazali, M.S. Salleh, and M. N. Mohammed. 2015. Evaluation of the microstructure and dry sliding wear behaviour of thixoformed A319 aluminium alloy," Materials & Design, 76(2015)169–180.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.03.057

[7] M. N. Mohammed, M. Z. Omar, Z. Sajuri, M. S. Salleh, and K. S. Alhawari, (2015). Trend and Development of Semisolid Metal Joining Processing, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2015, Article ID 846138, 13 pages.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/846138

[8] M. N. Mohammed, M. Z. Omar,S. Zubaidi, K. S. Alhawari, M. A. Abdelgnei,, (2018) Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Thixowelded AISI D2 Tool Steel. Metals.; 8(5):316.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050316

[9] M. S. Salleh, M. Z. Omar, J. Syarif, M. N. Mohammed. (2014). Thermodynamic Modelling of Al-Si-Cu Alloys for Semisolid Metal Processing. Sains Malaysiana 43(5): 791–798.

[10] American Society For Testing and Materials. 2004. Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size. ASTM E 112-96.

[11] G. Hirt, & R. Kopp.Semi-solid forming of aluminium and steel-introduction and overview," in Thixoforming-Semi-SolidMetal Processing, 2009. p.1–27, Willey-VCH GmbH, Weinheim, Germany.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527623969.ch1

[12] M. Z. Omar, H. V. Atkinson & P. Kapranos, (2011). Thixotropy in Semisolid Steel Slurries under Rapid Compression.Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A42(9): 2807–2819.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-011-0671-6

[13] M. Z. Omar, A. Alfan, J. Syarif, & H. V. Atkinson, (2011). Microstructural investigations of XW-42 and M2 tool steels in semi-solid zones via direct partial remelting route. Journal of Materials Science 46(24): 7696–7705.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-011-5749-4

[14] J. Zhang, Q. Shen, Luo, G. M. Li, & L.Zhang, (2012). Microstructure and bonding strength of diffusion welding of Mo/Cu joints with Ni interlayer. Materials & Design, 39, 81–86..

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.02.032

[15] J., Cao, J., Liu, X., Song, X.Lin, & J.Feng, (2014). Diffusion bonding of TiAl intermetallic and Ti 3 AlC 2 ceramic: Interfacial microstructure and joining properties, Material & Design 56: 115–121.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.10.074

[16] M. N. Mohammed, M. Z. Omar, J. Syarif, Z. Sajuri, M. S. Salleh, and K. S. Alhawari, Microstructural Evolution during DPRM Process of Semisolid Ledeburitic D2 Tool Steel, The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 828926, 7 pages, 2013..

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/828926

[17] D. Aisman, H., Jirkova, L.Kucerova, & B. Masek, (2011). Metastable structure of austenite base obtained by rapid solidification in a semi-solid state. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509, S312–S315..

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.12.211

[18] M. N. Mohammed, M. Z. Omar, J. Syarif, M. S. Salleh, and K. S. Alhawari, Morphological Evolution during Partial Re-Melting of AISI D2 Cold-Work Tool Steel, Sains Malaysiana, 43(8)(2014) 1213-1219.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.699.76