Semi-Solid of Alloys and Composites XV

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Authors: Gui Sheng Gan, Da Quan Xia, Xin Liu, Cong Liu, Han Lin Cheng, Zhong Zhen Ming, Hao Yang Gao, Bin Yang
Abstract: Novel reactive technique has been employed in synthesis of 7075 Al matrix composites, and effect of TiB2 particles on sedimentation and microstructure of 7075 Al Alloy in near liquidus was investigated. Researchers have shown that 4.5%TiB2/7075 composites had the smallest grains and the minimum liquidus and solidus temperatures in 7075 Al matrix composites. 4.5%TiB2/7075 composites holding for 21 hours appeared stratification phenomenon, the globular grains were 61μm and 214μm, 250μm and 283μm with the increase of holding time respectively. The microstructures evolution of TiB2 /7075 composites holding for different time at 635°C was a two-stage mechanism that the globular grains was formed firstly and secondly sedimentation and layering were began after a period of time of Ostwald ripening. The globular grain continued to increase during the settling process.
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Authors: Łukasz Rogal, Bogusław Baran, Piotr Bobrowski, Anna Tarasek, Piotr Ozga, Lidia Litynska-Dobrzyńska
Abstract: Magnesium injection molding technology was used to produce Mg based nanocomposites. AZ91 chips were mixed with 5 wt.% of β-SiC nanoparticles in solid state and fed to pre-heated cylinder of prototype injection molding machine. Using screw rotation, granules were transferred to nozzle area at simultaneous intensive shearing and mixing of slurry containing reinforcement phases. Injection process was conducted at 595 °C, which corresponded to about 90% liquid phase and cast to steel die preheated to 150 °C. Detailed characterization of microstructure was performed using SEM and TEM microscopes. Composite microstructure consisted of α(Mg) globular grains with size of about 60 μm and volume of 7-10% surrounded by mixture of proeutectic magnesium solid solution with irregular shape and average size of 12 μm as well as fine eutectic mixture (α(Mg) + β-Mg17Al12). Additionally, TEM-BF image showed β-SiC nanoparticles with size of 20-50 nm in the area of eutectic. Hardness and compression strength of AZ91 nanocomposites increased from 58 to 75 HV and from 200 to 235 MPa, respectively.
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Authors: Le Cheng, Hong Xing Lu, Qiang Zhu, Xiang Kai Zhang, Ai Di Shen, Peng Yang
Abstract: Semi-solid squeeze casting (SS-SC) is a new processing technology which combines semi-solid processing (SSP) and squeeze casting (SC). In this process, semi-solid slurry fills mold by using its rheological property and solidifies under high pressure. It has several advantages, such as stable filling, small heat impact to the mold, low cost, high density and excellent mechanical properties of castings, which receives more and more attention. The microstructure of castings provided by SS-SC is quite different from that of casting provided by conventional SC in as-cast condition, which leads to differences in the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties in heat treatment process. In this study, A356.2 aluminum alloys castings were provided by both SS-SC and conventional SC respectively. The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of castings during heat treatment was investigated to obtain the best mechanical properties of semi-solid squeeze castings. Keywords:Microstructure, Mechanical properties, Heat treatment, A356 alloy, Semi-Solid Squeeze Casting
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Authors: Nai Yong Li, Han Xiao, Chi Xiong, De Hong Lu, Rong Feng Zhou
Abstract: The semi-solid extruded ZCuSn10P1 copper alloy were annealed at different temperatures and time. The influences of heat treatment temperature and holding time on the microstructure of semi-solid ZCuSn10P1 copper alloy were investigated. The results show that with the increase of heat treatment temperature, the morphology of the semi-solid microstructure was improved, the sharp angle around the primary phase α-Cu and the liquid droplets were reduced. With the increase of heat treatment time, the solid-liquid segregation of the semi-solid structure was improved. The average grain size of the solid phase increased with the increasing of the holding time. After heat treatment, the solid solubility of the primary phase α-Cu increased, and the Sn and P elements in the liquid phase continued to diffuse to the primary phase α-Cu. The microstructure of semi-solid copper alloy was the most uniform after heat treatment at 350°C for 120 min.
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Authors: Wei Min Mao, Peng Yu Yan, Z.K. Zheng
Abstract: s: The semi-solid slurry of Al-25%Si hypereutectic aluminum alloy was prepared through a copper serpentine pouring channel, the effect of pouring temperature and numbers of channel bend on the slurry microstructure was investigated. The results show that the primary silicon grains in Al-25%Si hypereutectic alloy solidified at a traditional condition are very large and the average silicon grain size is about 65.3μm, however, when the liquid Al-25%Si alloy is poured through a copper serpentine pouring channel, the primary silicon grains are fined obviously. If the channel has three bends and the pouring temperature is 747°C,the average silicon grain size in the slurry is about 33.7μm. If the channel has four bends and the pouring temperature is 747°C, the average silicon grain size in the slurry is about 30.9μm. If the channel has seven bends and the pouring temperature is 747°C, the average silicon grain size in the slurry is about 28.6μm. The analysis shows that the chilling effect of the inner channel wall precipitates primary silicon nuclei, and so the primary silicon grains of Al-25%Si alloy are fined greatly. Meanwhile, the subsequent washing of the alloy melt also promotes the separation of primary silicon grains from the inner wall and the primary silicon grains are further fined. The above research work demonstrates eventually that the copper serpentine pouring channel process is a good method for fining the primary silicon grains in hypereutectic Al-25%Si alloy rather than using chemical fining agent phosphorus as in traditional process.
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Authors: S. Thanabumrungkul, W. Jumpol, Rungsinee Canyook, N. Meemongkol, Jessada Wannasin
Abstract: Current aluminum automotive parts such as wheels, engine and transmission components are produced by tilted gravity die casting for control gas porosity. But, there are still problems resulting in inefficient production: shrinkage porosity, microstructure size and uniformity. Shrinkage porosity is one of the major issues which affects mechanical properties such as strength and elongation in tilted pour permanent mold. Recent work using slurry casting technique has shown potential in gravity sand casting. Results show that the casting parts have complete filling at low solid fractions and the casting yield is also higher than conventional gravity sand casting. This paper extends important work for potential industrial applications in gravity die casting: microstructure size, uniformity, solid fraction control for micro shrinkage level.
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Authors: Wei Min Mao, Peng Yu Yan, Z.K. Zheng
Abstract: In order to study the possibility of refining the primary silicon grains in the microstructure of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a serpentine pouring channel, the semi-solid slurry of A390 aluminum alloy was prepared through a water-cooled copper serpentine pouring channel, which is a new method proposed recently for semi-solid forming process, and the effect of pouring temperature on the slurry microstructure was investigated. The results show that the slurry of A390 aluminum alloy with refined primary silicon grains can be prepared under given conditions and especially when the pouring temperatures is 690°C, the primary silicon grains can be refined obviously, the equivalent silicon grain size is 19.7mm and the average shape factor is about 0.7. The analysis shows that the chilling effect of the inner channel wall precipitates a large number of primary silicon nuclei, and so the primary silicon grains are refined greatly. Meanwhile, the subsequent alloy melt washing also promotes the separation of primary silicon grains from the inner wall and the primary silicon grains are further refined. The work undertaken demonstrates eventually that the serpentine pouring channel process is a good method for refining the primary silicon grains in hypereutectic A390 alloy rather than using chemical fining agent phosphorus as in traditional process, and provides an alternative process choice.
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Authors: Hamid Tavakkoli, Behzad Niroumand, Ahmad Rezaeian
Abstract: Effects of SIMA processing on size and shape of primary solid particles of Cu34wt.%Zn2wt.%Pb brass alloy was investigated. The optimal temperature for semisolid processing of the alloy was found to be around 890 °C using Thermo-calc simulation software. Liquid fraction sensitivity of the alloy around this temperature is 0.012. The results indicated the formation of non-dendritic microstructure even after 1 min holding of 10% cold worked sample at 890 °C. Sphericity of the primary solid particles increased by increasing the cold working ratio and holding time. The smallest size (103 μm) and highest shape factor (0.84) of the primary solid particles were achieved at 30% cold working ratio and 5 min holding time.
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Authors: Hui Yang, Wen Tong Tian
Abstract: The study investigated the effects of mechanical stirring before solidification on the metallurgical structure of hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon A356. A series of stirring trials were conducted in the present study. Emphasis were placed on the morphological changes of the primary phase, which was subjected to different levels of stirring at various values of the rod material and its diameter, insertion temperature and rotation speed. It was found that when the rod was made of the same material as the molten metal, it acted as a nucleation site to generate numerous nucleated primary crystals, which separated from the rod surface continuously into the molten metal with the rotation of the stirring rod, resulting in the refinement and spheroidization of the primary crystals. The ideal semisolid slurry with homogeneous spherical and fine primary crystals could be obtained by optimizing rod insertion temperature, rotation speed and its diameter, which is a key factor in semi-solid forming.
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Authors: Antonio de Pádua Lima Filho, Bruno Katsuyoshi Silama Ueda, Tales Paschoalino de Castro, Rodrigo Alessandro Nunes de Oliveira
Abstract: Strip casting is a new method of producing metal matrix composites. Two-roll melt dragged processing (TRMD-ing) and single-roll melt dragged processing (SRMD-ing) methods were used to study the manufacture of 2-mm-thick composite strips by using PbSn (≈ 11.3 g/cm3) eutectic alloy matrix reinforced with iron (≈ 7.86 g/cm3) powder (≈ 70 μm) at a rate of 0.3 m/s. The metallic powder stored in the feed hopper (≈ 90 g) was pushed during the pouring operation of the cast alloy (≈ 4 kg) at 260 oC on the cooling slope to produce a mixture of metallic slurry and particles to feed the nozzle to be dragged by the lower roll. Various surface defects occurred during processing, such as the failure of the powder particle to be embedded in the matrix by SRMD-ing with and without stirrer into the nozzle, and the rolling up of the strip into the nozzle by TRMD-ing. Graphite nanoparticles formed inside the α-Pb grain revealed a complicate eutectic structure in both the processing methods. The colloidal graphite used to coat the crucible, cooling slope, and nozzle could act as a nucleation agent for preferential centre segregation in the α-Pb grain. This suggests that the graphite nanoparticles functioned as nucleation points in the lead-rich α phase. Thus, another type of composite was formed in the presence of graphite nanoparticles within the lead-rich α-phase surrounded by β-Sn. An electron probe microanalysis and scanning electronic microscopy were used to investigate the composition and distribution and identify the different phases. Several types of particulate reinforcements may be added to the matrix to obtain composites for mechanical, electronic, and magnetic applications using these technologies.
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