WO3:Mo and WO3:Ti Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: The Influence of Metallic Concentration on Physical Properties: An Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Study

Abstract:

Article Preview

WO3:Mo and WO3:Ti thin films have been deposited on FTO/Glass substrates by the pulsed chemical spray technique at a substrate temperature of Ts = 450°C. The influence of Mo and Ti doping on the structural, electrical, and optical behavior of WO3 thin films, has been studied by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Ultra Violet and Visible Spectrometry (UV-VIS), and Surface Conductivity Methods (Four Points). Doped WO3 films presents similar polycrystalline structures but with noticeable modifications in surface configurations at micrometric and nanometric levels, as the Mo and Ti concentration is systematically increased in the starting sprayed solution. From processed High-Resolution Electron Micrographs (HREM), a low density of structural defects was found on pure and doped WO3 grains. This lead to conclude that variations in films surface characteristics are mainly related with metallic doping concentrations which in turn, have noticeable influence in electrical and optical behaviors reported in this work.

Info:

Periodical:

Solid State Phenomena (Volume 286)

Edited by:

Luz Stella Gomez-Villalba

Pages:

49-63

Citation:

D. Acosta et al., "WO3:Mo and WO3:Ti Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: The Influence of Metallic Concentration on Physical Properties: An Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Study", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 286, pp. 49-63, 2019

Online since:

January 2019

Export:

Price:

$41.00

[1] C.N.R. Rao, B. Raveau, Transition Metal Oxides, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1995, p.4 ISBN 1-5681-647 -3 338 pp.

[2] S.K. Deb, Optical and photoelectric properties and colour centres in thin films of tungsten oxide Philosophical Magazine 27, (1973),. 801-822.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786437308227562

[3] A.I. Gavrilyuk, VG Prokhvatilov, FA Chudnovskiì Photochromism in WO3 thin films. AI Gavrilyuk, Electrochimica Acta 44, (1999). 3027- 3037.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0013-4686(99)00017-1

[4] P. Jin, S. Nakao, S. Tanemura,  tungsten oxide thin films were grown on preheated substrate Thin Solid Films 324,(2015) 151-153.

[5] P.K. Biswas, N.C. Pramanik, M.K. Mahapatra, D. Ganguli, J.Livage. Optical and electrochromic properties of sol–gel WO3 films on conducting glass Materials Letters 57, (2003). 4429-4432.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-577x(03)00336-7

[6] A. Agrawal, J.P. Cronin, R. Zhang Review of solid state electrochromic coatings produced using sol-gel techniques, 21.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 31, (1993), 9-21.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-0248(93)90003-l

[7] C. Cantalini, W. Wlodarski, Y. Li, M. Passacantando, S.Santucci, E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Investigation on the O3 sensitivity properties of WO3 thin films prepared by sol–gel, thermal evaporation and rf sputtering techniques, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 64 (1), (2000), 182-188.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0925-4005(99)00504-3

[8] K. Galatsis, Y.X. Li, W. Wlodarski, K. Kalantar-zadeh, Sol-gel prepared MOO,-WO3 Thin Films for Gas Sensing. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 77, (2001), 478-483.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0925-4005(01)00738-9

[9] D.S. Lee, K.H. Nam, D.D. Lee, Thin Solid Films, Effect of substrate on NO2-sensing properties of WO3 thin film gas sensors. Thin Solid Films, 375, (1-2) 142 (2000) 142-146.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(00)01261-x

[10] S. A. Aly et al.: Microstructural and electrical characteristics of sprayed Tungsten oxide thin film, Int. J. New. Hor. Phys. 2, No. 1, (2015) ,5-10.

[11] J. S. E M. Svensoon, C. G. Granqvist, Electrochromic tungsten oxide films for energy efficient windows, Solar Energy Mater 11, (1984), 29-34.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1633(84)90025-x

[12] J. B. Mooney, S. B. Radding, Spray Pyrolysis Processing, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 101, (1982), 12 81-1286.

[13] C. M. Lampert, Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 76, (2003), 489-499.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-0248(02)00259-3

[14] S.R. Bathe, P.S. Patil, Titanium doping effects in electrochromic pulsed spray pyrolysed WO3 films, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91 (2007) 1097-1102.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2008.02.052

[15] T. Ivanova, K. Gesheva, A. Szekeres, Optical properties of chemical vapor deposited thin films of molybdenum and tungsten based metal oxides, J. Solid State Electrochem. 7 (2002) 21-24.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.11.042

[16] P.S. Patil, S.H. Mujawar, A.I. Inamdar, P.S. Shinde, H.P. Deshmukh, S.B. Sadale, Structural electrical and optical properties of TiO2 doped WO3 thin films, Appl. Surf. Sci., 252 (5) (2005) 1643-1650.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.03.074

[17] P.S. Patil, S.B. Nikam, L.D. Kadam, The tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been deposited by using the spray pyrolysis technique, Mater. Chem. Phys. 69, (2001), 77-83.

[18] R.Sivakumar, A.M.E. Raj, B. Subramanian, M. Jayachandran, D.C. Trivedi, C. Sanjeeviraja, Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO3 thin films for electrochromic devices, Mater. Res. Bull. 39, (2004), 1479-1489.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2004.04.023

[19] J.M. Ortega, A.I. Martinez, D.R. Acosta, C.R. Magaña, Structural and electrochemical studies of WO3 films deposited by pulsed spray pyrolysis, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol.Cells 90, (2006),2471-2479.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2006.03.033

[20] S. R. Bathe and P. S. Patil, Titanium doping effects in electrochromic pulsed spray pyrolysed WO3 thin films, Solid State Ionics, vol. 179, no. 9-10,(2008), 314–323.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2008.02.052

[21] Yuxiang. Qin, Changyu. Liu, Mei. Liu, Yang. Liu, Nanowire (nanorod) arrays constructed tungsten oxide hierarchical structure and its unique NO2-sensing performances, J. Alloys Comp. 615, (2014) , 616–623.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.07.080

[22] C. Zhang, M. Debliguy, A. Boudiba, H. Liao, C. Coddet, Sensing properties of atmospheric plasma-sprayed WO3 coating for sub-ppm NO2 detection, Sens. Actuators, B 144 ,(2010), 280–288.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2009.11.006

[23] Guo-fa Cai, Xiu-liWang, Ding Zhou, Jia-heng Zhang, Qin-qin Xiong, Gu. Chang-dong,Tu. Jiang-ping, Hierarchical structure Ti-doped WO3 film with improved electrochromism in visible-infrared region, RSC Adv. 3, (2013),6896-6905.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ra40675j

[24] K.J. Patel, C.J. Panchal, V.A. Kheraj, M.S. Desai, Structural, electrical and optical properties of the thermally evaporated tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films, Mater. Chem. Phys. 114 ,(2009), 475-478.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.09.071

[25] M. Addou, A. Outzourhitd, J.C. Berne, B. El Idrissia,M. Regraguia, V. Jousseaume, Electrical and optical properties of WO3 thin films, Thin Solid Films 397, (2001), 238-243.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(01)01405-5

[26] R.S. Vemuri, K. Kamala Bharathi, S.K. Gullapalli, C.V. Ramana, Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films, Appl.Mater. Interfaces 2 (9), (2010), 2623-2628.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/am1004514

[27] Bakonyi, I.; Toth-Kadar, E.; Tarnoczi, T.; Varga, L.; Cziraki, A.; Gerocs, I.; Fogarassy, B. Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films, Nanostruct. Mater 3,(1993), 155–158.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0965-9773(93)90073-k

[28] Laura Maria Manceriu, Aline Rougier, Anca Duta , Comparative investigation of the Ti and Mo additives influence on the opto-electronic properties of the spray deposited WO3 thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 630, (2015), 133–145.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.12.240

[29] K.A. Gesheva, A. Cziraki, T. Ivanova, A. Szekeres, Crystallization of chemically vapor deposited molybdenum and mixed tungsten/molybdenum oxide films for electrochromic application, Thin Solid Films 515, (2007) ,4609-4613.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.11.042

[30] S.K. Deb, Optical and photoelectric properties and colour centres in thin films of tungsten oxide Philos. Mag. 27, (1973), 801-822.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786437308227562

[31] M. Acosta, D. González, I. Riech, Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films bynon-reactive sputtering, Thin Solid Films 517, (18) (2009), 5442-5445.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.01.090

[32] M.C. Rao, O.M. Hussain, Optical properties of vacuum evaporated WO3 thin films, JChem. Sci. 1 (7), (2011), 76-80.

[33] P.R. Patil, P.S. Patil, Preparation of mixed oxide MoO3–WO3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterization, Thin Solid Films 382 (1–2), (2001), 13-22.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-6090(00)01410-3