Papers by Author: Beong Bok Hwang

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Authors: B.D. Ko, Hyoung Jin Choi, Beong Bok Hwang, S.H. Kim, Sun Keun Hwang
Abstract: New manufacturing processes for a valve-spring retainer (VSR) are proposed by replacing the initial solid billet for commercially available thick-walled pipes. The rigid-plastic FEM has been applied to simulate the conventional five-stage manufacturing process for VSR component. The existing process includes mainly backward extrusion and heading operations. A process design methodology is proposed and applied for the analysis. The process design criteria are the maximum force requirement within the available press limit, and the material saving by reducing the wastes from the process. As a result, several simulations of one-step process from selected stocks to the final product shape are performed for a possibly better process than the conventional one. Statistics among different processes are summarized and compared each other in terms of number of required operations for final product, forging load, material waste, number of individual die, process time, and even the possibility of fracture during service. Experiment also has been conducted to ensure that the proposed one-step process is safe operation without geometrical defects.
Authors: Joong Yeon Lim, Jung Min Seo, Beong Bok Hwang
Abstract: A finite element method for the compaction process of metallic powder is introduced in the present work. Basic equations for the finite element formulation are summarized. A yield criterion, which is modified by describing asymmetric behavior of powder metal compacts, is introduced and applied to a certain class of powdered metal compaction processes. Two-level flanged solid cylindrical components are analyzed in three different compacting methods with three different compact geometries. The simulation results are summarized in terms of relative density distribution within compacts, pressure distributions along the die-wall interfaces, load-stroke relationships of each punch, average densities as functions of height and radius of the compact, respectively, and average densities of pin and head. For each compact from different compacting method, the best pressing method is chosen for uniform density distributions within the compact.
Authors: Moo Young Huh, Hyoung Jin Choi, J.H. Ok, Beong Bok Hwang, Bok Choon Kang
Abstract: The dissimilar channel angular pressing (DCAP) process by rolling was numerically modeled and analyzed by the rigid-plastic two-dimensional finite element method in order to optimize the strain state of the DCAP process. Three distinct deformation mechanics during DCAP by rolling includes rolling, bending, and shearing. AA 1100 aluminum alloy was selected as a model material for the analysis of DCAP process. Difference in the friction conditions between the upper and lower roll surfaces led to large variation of shear strain component throughout the thickness of sample. Strain accompanying bending turned out to be negligible because of a large radius of curvature by relatively large roll diameter. The concentrated shear deformation was monitored at the corner of the DCAP-channel where the abrupt change in the direction of material flow occurred. The strain state at the upper and lower surfaces was observed to vary strongly from that of the center layer of the sheet.
Authors: K.H. Min, B.D. Ko, B.S. Ham, J.H. Ok, Beong Bok Hwang, H.S. Koo, Jung Min Seo
Abstract: In this paper, the forming limit of flange in radial extrusion process was analyzed by the rigid-plastic finite element method. The selected model material for simulation and experiments was AA 3105 aluminum alloy. The predictions from simulation were made in terms of axial and circumferential strains. Experiments also have been conducted to compare with the simulation results with regards to deformation pattern. Furthermore, the deformation pattern in forming of flange section was closely investigated and categorized in three cases such as sticking, separating and cracking. The analysis in this paper is focused on the transient extrusion process of material flow into the gap in radial direction for different gap heights and die corner radii. The results of present study were summarized in terms of evolution of surface strains in axial and circumferential directions measured from the finite element meshes located in the region where surface cracking occurred in experiments. The forming limit line was drawn in the relationship of circumferential and axial strain. It was concluded from this study that the forming limit line is influenced mainly by circumferential strain on free surface of flange. It was also predicted that ductile fracture on flange surface is likely to occur in the middle of flange gap under the condition of sticking deformation and near bottom of flange gap under the condition of separating deformation, respectively. The forming limit of flange in terms of flange diameter was expected about 2.5do, which is 2.5 times the diameter of original billet.
Authors: Jae Hyun Shim, J.H. Ok, Hyoung Jin Choi, H.S. Koo, Beong Bok Hwang
Abstract: Conventional multi-step extrusion processes with solid billet are examined by the rigid-plastic finite element method in order to provide criteria for new process sequence for hollow parts. Two examples are taken for the analyses such as the current three-stage cold extrusion process for a hollow flange part and five-stage process for manufacturing an axle housing. Based on the results of simulation of the current three-stage and five-stage manufacturing processes, new design strategy for improving the process sequences is developed simply by replacing the initial billet from solid to hollow one. The developed new process sequences are applied for simulation by FEM and they are compared with the existing processes to confirm the usefulness of new process sequences with hollow initial billets. The results of simulation show that the newly proposed process sequences with hollow billet instead of solid one are more economical way to manufacture required parts, respectively.
Authors: Jung Min Seo, Beong Bok Hwang
Abstract: Once expandable polystyrene (EPS) foam has been used out, its high volume-to-weight ratio becomes a serious problem, and it is now prototypical high-bulk/non-burnable landfill problem. This is one of main obstacles for EPS foam to be recycled. This paper is concerned with volume reduction method for wasted EPS foam. The analysis is focused on the description of importance of volume reducing method for EPS foam. Wasted EPS foam has not been recycled effectively since its volume to weight ratio is extremely high. The large volume of EPS has prevented from its proper recycling because of high cost of transportation to recycling plant. In this reason, successful recycling of wasted EPS foam results directly from successful volume reduction of wasted EPS foam in proper manner. This paper deals with various existing methods for volume reduction of wasted EPS foam. Six existing processes of volume reduction for wasted EPS has been analyzed qualitatively and compared each other in terms of expected polystyrene (PS) characteristics after volume reduction, cost effectiveness of each process, possible effects on environment caused by the volume reduction process, and applicability to possibly recycled products. The methods analyzed in this paper include thermal, solvent, far infrared, pulverization, and mechanical compaction. Analysis was concentrated to compare each process mostly in qualitative manner among existing processes.
Authors: J.H. Ok, Beong Bok Hwang, Hyoung Jin Choi, B.S. Ham, Sun Keun Hwang
Abstract: This paper deals with an analysis of material flow in an extrusion process with a divide flow. The billet material flows easily into the corners of the die cavity and/or the material flow is controlled by the help of the ratio in reduction area, thikness ratio of backward can thickness to forward can thickness. So the influences of this tool geometry and process condition on balanced material flow in a combined forward and backward can extrusion process are explained. The FEM simulation has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of process parameters such as thickness ratio on the material flow. Deformation pattern and flow characteristics were examined in terms of design parameters such as extruded length ratio etc. Based on the simulation results, die pressure exerted on the die-workpiece interface is calculated and anaylsied for safe tooling. Therefore the numerical simulation works provide a combined extrusion process of stable cold forging process planning to avoid the severe damages on the tool.
Authors: Han Yong Jeon, Y.H. Lee, Jung Min Seo, Beong Bok Hwang, H.S. Koo
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the performance of geo-textile (GT) against chemical condition. GT is generally adopted for the upper part of geo-membrane (GM) for waste landfills and thus it is very important to consider the performance of GT against certain chemical environments until landfill is completed. In this study, PVA geo-textile/HDPE geo-membrane was prepared to investigate the waste landfill related properties in terms of long-term performance against chemical conditions imposed. GT composites of PVA GT/HDPE GM, PVA GT and HDPE GM were produced in thermal bonding process. Polyester and polypropylene GT were also manufactured in needle punching process. The experiments have been conducted under a modified version of EPA 9090 test method which is very similar to the method of evaluating chemical resistance of flexible membrane liner by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In this testing method, samples immersed in chemical of different solutions up to 150 days at 30 day interval were obtained to find tensile strength holding rate and chemical resistance. The analysis in this paper is focused to evaluate the effect of different pH conditions and temperature environments on geo-synthetics weights strength retention. It was concluded from the experiments that tensile strength of GT composites against leachate were reduced by 10 to 20% in both polypropylene and polyester non-woven GT. The reduction was more significant at temperatures of 50 °C than that at 25 °C. The experiments conducted in this study demonstrated that PVA GT is excellent in terms of chemical resistance.
Authors: Beong Bok Hwang, B.S. Ham, Kyung Hoon Min, Hyoung Jin Choi, Joong Yeon Lim
Abstract: The manufacturing process sequence of a power steering worm gear blank is analyzed. The conventional process sequence for manufacturing power assisted steering (PAS) part contains three distinctive operational stages such as indentation, extrusion, and upsetting, which were originally designed by forming equipment experts. Process conditions such as reduction in area, semi die angle and upsetting ratio are carefully considered to prevent from internal or geometrical defects. The simulation results of the conventional forging process are summarized in terms of deformation patterns, load-stroke relationships and die pressures along the interface for each operational stage. Close investigation of simulation results for current forming process leads to a new process sequence in which the number of operation are reduced into just one operation. Comparisons between the existing and proposed processes are made in terms of maximum force requirement, required forming energy, and process time, respectively. Experiment has been performed to confirm that the proposed process could be applied to replace the existing conventional process sequence and proved the new process to be a safe process sequence for manufacturing PAS part.
Authors: H.S. Koo, V.R. Jayasekera, K.H. Min, Jung Min Seo, Dong Hwan Jang, J.H. Ok, Beong Bok Hwang
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the pressure distribution along the die-powder interface in long parts. The pressure exerted on the interface at various points on the moving and stationary punch, and also on the sidewall of container was investigated by the finite element method. A plasticity theory describing asymmetric behavior of powdered metals in tension and compression was briefly summarized. The yield criterion applied to the sintered powdered metals had been modified for describing this asymmetric behavior. The material properties of copper powders under compaction were also briefly described for the completeness of the paper. The copper powders were selected as a model material in the present study. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pressure distribution along the interface of tooling quantitatively by the finite element method so that the results could be applied usefully to the design of tooling, especially container design for powdered metal compaction. Geometrical condition for analysis was confined to the Class II components which is very long parts without steps. It was concluded from the simulation results that the pressure exerted on the moving punch increases sharply near the outer circumference of punch and the pressure on the sidewall decreases at a distance from moving punch to fixed punch. It was also seen from the simulation that the pressure on the stationary punch is not significantly built up and decreases toward outer periphery. These trends were seen amplified with severe frictional conditions imposed on the tooling and powder interface.
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