Papers by Author: Chan Gyu Lee

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Authors: Kuk Tae Youn, Young Mok Rhyim, Jong Hoon Lee, Chan Gyu Lee, Yun Chul Jung
Abstract: It is well known that the main failure mechanisms in die-casting mould are heat checking due to thermal fatigue and melt-out caused by chemical reaction between die and molten alloys. Thermal fatigue tests were carried out using the thermal cycle simulator to establish the proper method to estimate the thermal fatigue resistance of hot die steel. In this study, the thermal shock tester consisted of induction heating and water spray cooling unit was constructed to evaluate thermal crack propagation resistance and the sum of crack length per unit specimen length, Lm is proposed as the index representing the susceptibility to crack initiation and propagation. Also, new concept of measurement for the melt-out behavior was suggested. AISI H13 hot work tool steel was solution treated and tempered at various temperatures, to control the hardness and toughness that have effect on the behavior of thermal crack propagation. The result of thermal fatigue test showed that there is optimum value of hardness and impact energy to maximize the thermal crack propagation resistance. The influence of nitriding on melt-out resistance was also investigated. The dissolution rate due to melt-out phenomenon tended to be smaller for thicker compound layer. Furthermore, the resistance to melt-out was affected by the compound layer thickness rather than that of diffusion layer. The results of the both tests properly reflect the effect of materials properties on failure modes of die-casting mould and it means those test methods are suitable to evaluate the durability of hot work tool steel for die-casting.
Authors: Kuk Tae Youn, Young Mok Rhyim, Jong Hoon Lee, Young Sang Na, Wee Do Yoo, Chan Gyu Lee
Abstract: For hot die steel, failure is mostly caused by heat checking and melt-out on its surfaces which are in contact with molten metals. In the present research, resistances to melt-out and heat checking of surface modified H13 hot die steels, such as gas nitriding(GN) and micro-blasting(MB), were investigated. The evaluation of melt-out behavior was carried out by measuring the mean depth from the original surface after immersion. To examine the thermal fatigue resistance, a cyclic thermal shock system consisting of induction heating and water spray quenching was constructed. The value of Lm is proposed as the index representing the susceptibility to crack initiation and propagation. The melt-out depth was the lowest for the GN treated surface. MB-GN and MB-GN-MB treated specimens also showed good resistance to melt-out. In the case of GN treatment, while the white layer was completely melted out, the diffusion layer still existed even after immersion for 43 hours. This implies that nitriding significantly reduced the rate of melt-out. From the total crack number, it is seen that crack initiation was reduced to the extent of half after surface treatment. This result means that the residual compressive stress and nitrided layer were beneficial to crack initiation resistance.
Authors: Jung Hoon Yoo, Dae Hwang Yoo, Jung Hwa Seo, Ji Ling Dong, Young Sang Na, Kyung Shik Cho, Jong Hoon Lee, Ulugbek Shaislamov, Jun Mo Yang, Chan Gyu Lee, Kee Sam Shin
Abstract: In Zr-Cu-Ni-Al bulk metallic glasses where there are no dislocations, localized plastic deformation in shear bands occurs largely by the formation and migration of defects such as voids, micropores, shear bands and local variations in composition. Thus, the investigation on defects is critical for the understanding and improvement of plastic deformation in metallic glasses. In this study, microstructures and nano defects in the Zr-Cu-Ni-Al BMGs are characterized by variety of techniques, such as X-ray diffractometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron holography.
Authors: Sang Sik Byeon, Kai Wang, Chan Gyu Lee, Yeon Gil Jung, Bon Heun Koo
Abstract: 2021 series aluminum alloy is used as the matrix material for its wide application in engineering to make AlON coating layers by the electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) method. The experiments were carried out on 2021 Al alloys in alkaline electrolytes which are eco-friendly and low-cost. The experimental electrolyte composition includes: 2g/L NaOH as the electrolytic conductive agent, 6~14g/L Na3PO4 as alumina formative agent, 0.5g/L NaNO3 as a nitrogen inducing agent. The effects of phosphate content variation are evaluated by a combined composition and structure analysis of the coating layer using with Philips-X’Pert X-ray diffractometer, JSM 5610 scanning electron microscopy for the specimens EPP-treated at room temperature in 10 min under a hybrid voltage (260V DC + 200V AC-50Hz). In addition, microhardness of the ceramic coatings was measured to correlate the evolution of microstructure and resulting mechanical properties. The wear tests show that a composite of AlON-Al2O3 high anti-abrasive coating formed as a result of a reactive process between Al in the alloy itself and O-N supplied by the electrolyte.
Authors: Kuk Tae Youn, Young Sang Na, Jong Hoon Lee, Young Mok Rhyim, Wee Do Yoo, Chan Gyu Lee
Abstract: In order to understand the melt-out mechanism of H13 die casting mould material, microstructural investigation was conducted for the immersion-tested surface in Al-alloy melt. The surface condition of H13 tool steel was modified by varying nitriding conditions and by surface blasting. In particular, long-term behavior of melt-out phenomena during immersion testing of up to 43 hours was focused in this article. It was observed that an ion-nitrided H13 surface showed higher resistance towards melt-out than a gas-nitrided or blasted surface. This was related to the surface layers that are normally formed by nitriding.
Authors: Kuk Tae Youn, Young Mok Rhyim, Won Jon Yang, Jong Hoon Lee, Chan Gyu Lee
Abstract: The influence of surface treatment such as nitriding, TNHT(Ti Nano Heat-treatment, PHILOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.) and PVD coating on the thermal crack propagation behavior of hot work die steel was investigated. To examine the thermal fatigue resistance, the cyclic thermal shock system consisted of induction heating and water spray quenching unit was constructed and Lm is proposed as the index representing the susceptibility to crack initiation and propagation. Thermal stress depending on test temperature was also simulated by FEM. The TNHT specimen showed lower Lm value than as-heat treated specimen but, in the case of maximum and average crack length, the TNHT specimen exhibited higher value than those of as-heat treated specimen. This means that the small number of large cracks were initiated and propagated selectively in the TNHT specimen. This result can be caused by two contrary effects of diffusion layer, those are introduction of the residual compressive stress good for mitigation of thermal tensile stress and very high surface hardness harmful for crack initiation. However, Lm value of salt-bath nitriding specimen was very high due to the white layer in spite of the existence of diffusion layer.
Authors: Geun Woo Kim, Yong Jun Seo, Jin Long Bian, Chan Gyu Lee, Bon Heun Koo
Abstract: Composites with compositions La0.7Ca0.3MnO3(LCMO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO)/SnO2 were prepared by a standard ceramic technique. The structure and morphology of the composites have been studied by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The XRD and SEM results indicate that no reaction occurs between La based maganite and SnO2 grains, and that SnO2 segregates mostly at the grain boundaries of La based maganite. The variation in resistivity with temperature has been studied and shows a semiconducting behavior, furthermore the composites exhibit metallic percolation. It is interesting to note that an enhanced magnetoresisitance (MR) effect for the composites is found over a wide temperature range from low temperature to room temperature in an applied magnetic field of 0.5 Tesla. The spin-polarized tunneling and the spin-polarized tunneling may be attributed to the enhanced low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) effect.
Authors: Chan Gyu Lee, Yoshiaki Iijima
Authors: Jin Long Bian, Yong Jun Seo, Geun Woo Kim, Chang Hoon Sung, Shalendra Kumar, Chan Gyu Lee, Bon Heun Koo
Abstract: The composites of (1-x)La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/xCoO and (1-x)La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/xCoO (x =0 ~ 0.09) were fabricated by conventional solid state reaction method, and their electrical transport and magnetoresistance (MR%) properties were investigated by physical property measurement system (PPMS). The result of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) indicated that no new phase appeared in the composites except manganites matrix and CoO phases. CoO is mainly distributed at the grain boundaries and surfaces of the matrix. The resistivity LCMO and LSMO based composites were measured in the range 90-320K and 90-400K, respectively. The applied magnetic field is 0T and 0.5T. The observed variation of MR with varying Ca and Sr concentration has been qualitatively investigated.
Authors: Hui Myeong Lee, Byeong Seon Lee, Chan Gyu Lee, Yasunori Hayashi, Bon Heun Koo
Abstract: We will discuss the stress release phenomena, structural relaxation and interdiffusion processes during annealing. The [Co(4nm)/Ta(4nm)]38 multilayers were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on Si substrate. The multilayers were annealed at various temperatures (523 - 673K) in vacuum (under 10-5 torr) furnace. The effective interdiffusion coefficients were determined from the slope of the best straight line fit of the first peak intensity versus annealing time [d ln(I(t)/I(0)) /dt] by X-ray diffraction (XRD) low angle measurements. The drastic decrease of the relative intensity in the initial stage shown due to the structural relaxation was excluded in the calculation of effective interdiffusion coefficients. The temperature dependence of interdiffusion in the range of 523 - 673K is described by D = 3.2×10-19 exp(-0.51±0.11 eV/kT) m2s-1.
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