Papers by Author: Chang Hee Han

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Authors: Sung Ho Kim, Chang Hee Han, Woo Seog Ryu
Abstract: The effects of thermal aging on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties are important in the understanding of the in-service behavior of ferritic/martensitic steels in advanced nuclear power system. Ferritic/martensitic steels have been aged at 600oC for times up to 20,000 hrs. The change of mechanical properties has been examined for these aged materials. The strength and hardness was hardly changed after the thermal aging at 600oC for 20,000 hrs in all specimens. The impact absorbed energy decreased with the aging time. But the decrease of the impact absorbed energy was larger at the early stage of aging in tungsten added steels. This is attributed to the formation of Laves phase. Nitrogen which is known to increase the creep rupture strength had no effect on the degradation of the microstructure and mechanical properties during thermal aging.
Authors: Jin Sung Jang, Yong Bok Lee, Chang Hee Han, Yong Sun Yi, Seong Sik Hwang
Abstract: High Cr alloys were corrosion tested in supercritical water and the oxide scale was analyzed. Commercial grade two steel specimens; 9CrMoVNb steels, one 9CrMoVNbW steel, one 12Cr-MoVNbWCu steel and one 20Cr Fe-based O.D.S (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) alloy specimen were investigated. Corrosion tests were conducted within non-deaerated pure supercritical water at 627, 550, and 500oC with 25 MPa. Corrosion rate was estimated by the weight change per unit surface area and the oxide layer was analyzed using a grazing incidence X.R.D (x-ray diffractometer), S.E.M (scanning electron microscope) and T.E.M (transmission electron microscope) equipped with an E.D.S (energy dispersive spectroscope). Corrosion rates of the 9Cr steel specimens were observed to follow the parabolic growth rate law, while those of the specimens with a 12 per cent or higher Cr content showed significantly lower rates. Oxide scale on the 9Cr steel specimen after a corrosion test in a supercritical water was found to consist of three distinctive layers. Through the cross-section T.E.M the outermost layer with about a 35 µm thickness after 200 hr at 627 oC was identified to be magnetite type Fe3O4, and about 25 µm thick intermediate layer was a Cr partitioned magnetite type (Fe,Cr)3O4. The outermost layer showed a coarse columnar structure, while the intermediate one revealed an agglomerate of tiny oxide particles (several tens nm in diameter). The innermost layer next to the matrix phase was found to be the internally oxidized zone. Oxygen atoms seemed to have attacked along the grain boundaries and the lath boundaries and formed oxide CrO3 along the boundaries. Also a Cr depleted zone, and consequently a carbide-free zone, was observed along the interface between the internal oxidation zone and the matrix phase.
Authors: Tae Kyu Kim, Chang Hee Han, Sung Ho Kim, Hee Kyung Kwon, Dong Jin Kim
Abstract: In order to evaluate the effects of a pro-eutectoid ferrite content on the tensile strength and impact toughness of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steels, several samples with a different area fraction of ferrite in the range from 0 to 80% were prepared by a control of cooling rate from an austenitization heat treatment temperature of 930oC. The steels were then tempered at 690oC, followed by a heat treatment at 705oC as a simulation of postweld heat treatments. The results of microstructural observation indicated that the ferrite was uniformly distributed in the bainitic matrix. The results of tensile tests revealed that the tensile strength at room temperature and 450oC was slightly reduced with the ferrite content of up to 20%, but it was considerably reduced with the ferrite content of 80%. On the other hand, the results of impact tests at -60, -80 and -100oC indicated that the impact toughness was rapidly degraded with increasing ferrite content. These results attributed to the segregation of carbides in the bainitic matrix as a result of the formation of ferrite phase with low solubility of carbon. It is concluded that the ferrite content in the 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V steels could exert a sensitive inference on the impact toughness rather than on tensile properties.
Authors: Tae Kyu Kim, Chang Hee Han, Sung Ho Kim, Chan Bock Lee
Abstract: This study deals with the fabrication of high strength ferritic/martensitic steels by a control of both the carbon concentration and the fabrication process parameters. The 9Cr-2W steels containing a carbon concentration of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.11 wt% were normalized at 1050oC for 1 h, followed by a tempering at 550 and 750oC for 2 h, respectively. The results of the tensile tests at room temperature indicated that the tensile strengths were increased with an increase of the carbon concentration from 0.05 wt% to 0.07 wt%, but no more increase was observed when the carbon concentration was increased further up to 0.11%. After a cold rolling from a 4 mm to a 1 mm thickness without/with an intermediate heat treatment and a final heat treatment, the results of the tensile tests exhibited that superior tensile properties were obtained when the fabrication processes were composed of a tempering at 550oC, and a cold rolling with several intermediate heat treatments. These results could be attributed to the finely distributed precipitates in the partially recrystallized matrix. The optimized carbon concentration and the controlled fabrication process parameters are thus suggested to fabricate a high strength 9Cr-2W steel sheet.
Authors: Sung Ho Kim, Chang Hee Han, Woo Seog Ryu
Abstract: The precipitation of nano Cr2N particles in high Cr FM steels has been studied. The nitrogen content of the FM steels was changed to form stable Cr2N particles. Tempering temperature was also changed from 500 oC to 800 oC to study the precipitation behavior of the Cr2N particles with the tempering temperature. The Cr2N particles remained as a stable phase at a higher tempering temperature by increasing the nitrogen content. The shape of these particle was a fine needle type which was very similar to V(C,N) particles. The size of some Cr2N particles was increased as the nitrogen content increased. But these precipitates were not dissolved or largely coarsened during a creep deformation at 600°C. So it seems that they may act as an effective obstacle against a dislocation glide during a creep deformation, thus contribute to an increase of the creep rupture strength in high Cr FM steels.
Authors: Dae Whan Kim, Chang Hee Han, Woo Seog Ryu
Abstract: Fatigue tests of type 316 and 316LN stainless steel were conducted at RT and 600ı, 0.8~1.5% strain range for low cycle fatigue (LCF), 300~600ı, 0% strain range for thermal fatigue (TF) and 300~600ı, 2% strain range, in-phase or out-of-phase for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). LCF, TF, and TMF lives were increased but saturation stresses were decreased with the addition of nitrogen. The higher temperature was the lower TF life at a same temperature change. The minimum temperature change for TF failure was more than 100ı. TMF life was higher at inphase condition than at out-of-phase condition. Fracture mode was transgranular for LCF and outof- phase of TMF and almost transgranular and small intergranular for TF and in-phase TMF.
Authors: Dae Whan Kim, Chang Hee Han, Woo Seog Ryu
Abstract: Tensile and fatigue properties were evaluated for base and welded type 316LN stainless steel. Welding methods were GTAW (308L, Ar environment) and GTAWN (316L, Ar + N2 environment). Yield strength of weld joint was higher than that of base metal but elongation of weld joint was lower than that of base metal. UTS of weld joint was slightly lower than that of base metal. Yield strength and elongation with welding method were almost same. Fatigue life of weld joint was lower than that of base metal but fatigue strength of weld joint was higher than that of base metal. Ferrite content was increased with welding. Fatigue life welded by GTAWN was better than that of GTAW at RT and 600°C. This fatigue life behavior was consistent with the behavior of ferrite content.
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