Papers by Author: Dirk Biermann

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Authors: Thilo Breitsprecher, Rouven Hense, Franz Hauer, Sandro Wartzack, Dirk Biermann, Kai Willner
Abstract: The selective control of the frictional behavior (tailored friction) in metal forming processes is of high importance with regard to technical and economic aspects. This applies especially for the sheet-bulk-metal forming process. Milling with intentionally invoked regenerative tool vibrations can be applied in order to generate structured surfaces with tailored friction properties on the forming tool. These structures affect the formation of lubrication pockets during the forming process which determine the local frictional properties exceedingly. The full potential of this emerging technology can, however, only be revealed if the heuristic and design-relevant knowledge is acquired and provided to the tool-designer already in the early phases of process development. One thing the tool-designer has to specify is the local frictional behavior on the tool surface. But, however, he does not know which milling parameters lead to the necessary surface structures because in most cases he has no expert knowledge in milling, tribology and forming tools. In this paper data mining is used to determine the frictional behavior based on these parameters. The potential of this method in the described context is revealed by the application on data derived from simulation results, both from milling simulations and contact simulations. The latter are performed by using a Halfspace model for rough surface contact. Both approaches for these simulations, the data mining process and the results are explained to the reader.
Authors: Matthias Schweinoch, Alexei Sacharow, Dirk Biermann, Christoph Buchheim
Abstract: Springback effects, as occuring in sheet metal forming processes, pose a challenge to manufacturingplanning: the as-built part may deviate from the desired shape rendering it unusable forits intended purpose. A compensation can be achieved by modifying the forming tools to counteractthe shape deviations. A prerequisite to compensation is the knowledge of correspondences (ui; vj),between points ui on the desired and vj on the actual shape. FEM-based simulation software providesmeans to both virtually predict springback and directly obtain correspondences. In case of experimentalprototyping and validation, however, finding correspondences requires solving a registrationproblem: given a test shape Q (scan points of the as-built geometry) and a reference shape R (CADdata of the desired geometry), a transformation S has to be found to fit both objects. Correspondencesbetween S(Q) and R may then be computed based on a metric.If S is restricted to Euclidean transformations, then S(Q) results in a rigid transformation, whereevery point of Q is subject to the same translation and rotation. Local geometric deviations due tospringback are not considered, often resulting in invalid correspondences. In this contribution, a nonrigidregistration method for the efficient analysis of springback is therefore presented. The test shape Q is iteratively partitioned into segments with respect to an error metric. The segments are locally registeredusing rigid registration subject to regulatory conditions. Resulting discontinuities are addressedby minimization of the deformation energy. The error metric uses information about the deviationscomputed based on the correspondences of the previous iteration, e.g. maximum errors or changes ofthe sign. This adaptive per-segment registration allows appropriate correspondences to be determinedeven under local geometric deviations.
Authors: Sascha Rausch, Tobias Siebrecht, Petra Kersting, Dirk Biermann
Abstract: The abrasive-wear resistance and the lifetime of tribologically stressed free-formed surfaces of forming tools can be increased by thermally sprayed tungsten carbide coatings. In order to improve the surface quality and the shape accuracy, the workpieces must be machined prior to industrial application. A suitable machining process is NC grinding on five-axis machining centres using abrasive mounted points. However, the high hardness of the applied coatings and the small diameter of the utilized tools pose a great challenge for the process design. In order to optimize the grinding process and predict the resulting surface topography, a geometric-kinematic simulation based on the modelling of individual grains using Constructive Solid Geometry techniques was developed. In this paper, the results of fundamental investigations on grinding tungsten carbide coatings and the developed process simulation are presented.
Authors: Timo Bathe, Dirk Biermann
Abstract: The industrial relevance of high quality bore holes for parts of the automotive industry rises due to the growing requirements to limit CO2 emissions and therefore the tendency of using elevated pressures for the fuel injection. To fulfil these requirements the bores must have a very high surface quality. If large length-to-diameter (l/d) ratios are necessary, e.g. in machining of fuel injectors, deep hole drilling with single-lip drills (SLD) is mostly used to reach good surface qualities. Due to their asymmetric shape one component force acts as a normal force on the circumferential guiding pads of SLDs. For difficult to machine materials the mechanical loads increase as well. This results in a higher wear of the circumferential guiding pads of SLDs, which leads to reduced surface qualities. Many investigations have dealt with the influences of a cutting edge preparation to increase tool life and process parameters to optimise the productivity. Up to now no research work has dealt with the influences of the surface topography of the circumferential guiding pads on the produced bore quality. Thus, in this paper a superfinishing process is applied on cemented carbide rods as model workpieces with the circumferential shape G of SLDs to examine the influences of e.g. the grain size of the finishing film and the pulley hardness on the surface topography and the material removal at the circumferential surfaces.
Authors: Dirk Biermann, M. Feldhoff
Abstract: Highly abrasive nature of carbon fibres and material-related problems like fibre or fibre bundle pullouts, matrix micro cracks and especially delamination of single or multiple laminate layers can be regarded as major problems when machining CFRP. This paper presents an approach using mounted points for drilling of fibre reinforced thermosets. The axial and thermal loads were recorded and quality criterions like the surface roughness, diameter deviation and the delamination at the tool exit side were quantified. Furthermore, an approach to improve the grinding process is presented. Results indicate that using mounted points are suitable for drilling operations in case of thermoset laminates.
Authors: Klaus Weinert, Dirk Biermann, Michael Kersting, Sven Grünert
Abstract: Different possible reasons for defects have to be considered in machining light-weight aluminum structures. In the machining process, the cutting power affecting the workpiece leads to a thermo-mechanical load that can cause undesirable workpiece deformations and thus shape deviations. Moreover, the microstructure and the machined surface can be influenced, which is detrimental to the later application of the structures. Previously conducted experimental and simulative investigations, estimated the circular milling process to be the most suitable machining operation that provides the best compromise between mechanical and thermal loads compared to drilling operations [1,2]. In this paper the results of machining end-cross-sections of an aluminum profile are presented. The machining was obtained by a milling process, which is demanding, because of the low profile stiffness. For this process it is important to know the effects of machining in view of the shape deviations. By means of a Finite-Element-Analysis the deformations of the profile web can be calculated as well as validated by experiments. Based on these results, the appropriate process parameter values for end machining can be defined.
Authors: Philipp Landkammer, Andreas Loderer, Eugen Krebs, Benjamin Söhngen, Paul Steinmann, Tino Hausotte, Petra Kersting, Dirk Biermann, Kai Willner
Abstract: Forming of near-net-shaped and load-adapted functional components, as it is developed in the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre on Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming SFB/TR 73, causes different problems, which lead to non-optimal manufacturing results. For these high complex processes the prediction of forming effects can only be realized by simulations. A stamping process of pressing eight punches into a circular blank is chosen for the considered investigations. This reference process is designed to reflect the main aspects, which strongly affect the final outcome of forming processes. These are the orthotropic material behaviour, the optimal design of the initial blank and the influences of different contact and friction laws. The aim of this work is to verify the results of finite element computations for the proposed forming process by experiments. Evaluation methods are presented to detect the influence of the anisotropy and also to quantify the optimal blank design, which is determined by inverse form finding. The manufacturing accuracy of the die plate and the corresponding roughness data of the milled surface are analysed, whereas metrological investigations are required. This is accomplished by the help of advanced measurement techniques like a multi-sensor fringe projection system and a white light interferometer. Regarding the geometry of the punches, micromilling of the die plate is also a real challenge, especially due to the hardness of the high-speed steel ASP 2023 (approx. 63 HRC). The surface roughness of the workpiece before and after the forming process is evaluated to gain auxiliary data for enhancing the friction modelling and to characterise the contact behaviour.
Authors: Marcel Tiffe, Dirk Biermann, Andreas Zabel
Abstract: The composition of different materials and their specific properties like tensile strength and toughness is one way to achieve workpiece characteristics which are tailored to the later application. Another approach is the subsequent local heat treatment of workpieces made of homogeneous materials. However, both ways are costly and go along with several subsequent process steps. Therefore, mono-material workpieces which were manufactured by thermo-mechanical forming processes may provide such tailored properties in the form of functional gradations. Furthermore, the process chain is shortened by the combination of forming and heat treatment, but nevertheless machining processes are still needed for proper workpiece finish. This puts the challenge of varying process conditions due to hardness alterations within a single process step, e.g. turning. In addition to experimental investigations simulative analysis techniques are desired to evaluate mechanical as well as thermal loads on tool and workpiece. In the case of FE-based microscopic chip formation simulations proper material behaviour needs to be determined with respect to material hardness. This paper describes the approach of fitting Johnson-Cook material parameters as a function of workpiece material hardness. In order to achieve realistic stress states within the process zone, this approach considers the yield strength as a linear function of the hardness. It is shown how the hardness influences the cutting conditions and how the Johnson-Cook parameters are identified. Then these parameters are validated in three-dimensional simulations of exterior dry turning by comparison of simulated process forces and chip formation to experimentally achieved ones.
Authors: Dirk Biermann, T. Mohn, H. Blum, H. Kleemann
Abstract: This paper describes the special demands placed on the grinding of arc-sprayed WC-Fe coatings on a conventional machining center. Basic process configuration, experimental results, measurement methods and an approach for a hybrid simulation system are presented.
Authors: Peter Sieczkarek, Lukas Kwiatkowski, A. Erman Tekkaya, Eugen Krebs, Dirk Biermann, Wolfgang Tillmann, Jan Herper
Abstract: Sheet-bulk metal forming is a process used to manufacture load-adapted parts with high precision. However, bulk forming of sheet metals requires high forces, and thus tools applied for the operational demand have to withstand very high contact pressures, which lead to high wear and abrasion. The usage of conventional techniques like hardening and coating in order to reinforce the surface resistance are not sufficient enough in this case. In this paper, the tool resistance is improved by applying filigree bionic structures, especially structures adapted from the Scarabaeus beetle to the tool’s surface. The structures are realized by micromilling. Despite the high hardness of the tool material, very precise patterns are machined successfully using commercially available ball-end milling cutters. The nature-adapted surface patterns are combined with techniques like plasma nitriding and PVD coating, leading to a multilayer coating system. The effect of process parameters on the resistance of the tools is analyzed experimentally and compared to a conventional, unstructured, uncoated, only plasma nitrided forming tool. Therefore, the tools are used for an incremental bulk forming process on 2 mm thick metal sheets made of aluminum. The results show that the developed methodology is feasible to reduce the process forces and to improve the durability of the tools.
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