Papers by Author: Etienne Patoor

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Authors: M. Reda Berrahmoune, Sophie Berveiller, Karim Inal, Etienne Patoor, Christian R. Simon, Jean-Christophe Glez
Abstract: The main objective of this work is to contribute to the study of the 301LN unstable austenitic stainless steel by determining the distribution of residual stresses after deep drawing, taking into account the phase transformation. In the first part, kinetics of martensitic transformation are determined for uniaxial loading. Tensile tests are performed at different pre-strains at room temperature for two different strain rates. The austenite/martensite content is measured by X-ray diffraction and is coupled with the determination of residual stresses distribution. In addition, to establish a relation between the complex loading path effect and the residual stresses state, deep drawing are done for different drawing ratios for two different temperatures. Macroscopic tangential residual stresses are determined by the separation technique. It appears that the residual stresses increase with increasing drawing ratios and the maximum value is located at middle height of the cup.
Authors: Sophie Berveiller, Pascal Dubos, Karim Inal, André Eberhardt, Etienne Patoor
Abstract: We have developed a new convenient tool for local stress and strain analysis in the scanning electron microscope. It is based on the Kossel diffraction, physical phenomenon that is known for a long time because of its high accuracy for lattice constant determination in micron regions. The pattern is recorded on a CCD camera allowing a fast and reliable analysis. This technique has been applied to several materials. In-situ tensile tests were performed on a shape memory alloy. During loading, we observe clearly a shift of Kossel lines on the diagram, whose magnitude depends on the (hkl) crystallographic planes. The stress can be deduced from the diffracting plane strain measurement using a single crystal stress analysis.
Authors: Raphaël Pesci, Karim Inal, Sophie Berveiller, Etienne Patoor, Jean Sébastien Lecomte, André Eberhardt
Abstract: A Kossel microdiffraction experimental set up is under development inside a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in order to determine the crystallographic orientation as well as the inter- and intragranular strains and stresses on the micron scale, using a one cubic micrometer spot. The experimental Kossel line patterns are obtained by way of a CCD camera and are then fully indexed using a home-made simulation program. The so-determined orientation is compared with Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) results, and in-situ tests are performed inside the SEM using a tensile/compressive machine. The aim is to verify a 50MPa stress sensitivity for this technique and to take advantage from this microscope environment to associate microstructure observations (slip lines, particle decohesion, crack initiation) with determined stress analyses.
Authors: M. Reda Berrahmoune, Sophie Berveiller, Karim Inal, Etienne Patoor
Abstract: In this study, residual stresses state at different scales in the 301LN unstable austenitic steel after deep drawing was determined. The first part of the work deals with the characterization of the martensitic transformation during uniaxial loading. The austenite/martensite content which was determined by X-Ray Diffraction increases until a maximum of 0.6 for 30% strain. Internal stress distribution was determined by coupling in-situ tensile tests with sin²ψ method. As soon as martensite appears, the magnitudes of the internal stresses in this phase were found to be 400 MPa higher than in the austenite. To establish a relation between the complex loading path effect and the phase stress state, deep drawing tests were carried out for different drawing ratios. Both macroscopic tangential residual stresses and residual stresses in the martensite were determined. It appears that the macroscopic tangential residual stresses are positive and increase with increasing drawing ratios and the maximum value is located at middle height of the cup. It is about 850MPa for the Drawing Ratio (DR)=2.00. The tangential residual stresses in the martensite were found to be positive in the external face and have a same evolution as the macroscopic ones.
Authors: B. Malard, Thilo Pirling, Karim Inal, Etienne Patoor, Sophie Berveiller
Abstract: This paper focuses on the study of the superelastic behavior associated to the stress induced martensite transformation in a Cu-12.5%Al-0.5%Be [wt. %] shape memory alloy. Neutron diffraction was used to track the evolution of stress in the (β1) austenitic phase during the onset of the stress-induced martensite phase change. A thin flat and a cylindrical specimen was analyzed, allowing us firstly to evaluate the stress evolution in the austenite phase during martensitic transformation with laboratory X-ray and neutron diffraction and secondly to compare differences between methods (sin2ψ, principal stress) for in-situ neutron diffraction experiments.
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