Papers by Author: Francisca García Caballero

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Authors: Lucia Morales-Rivas, Hans Roelofs, Stephan Hasler, Carlos García-Mateo, Francisca García Caballero
Abstract: Chemical segregation of alloying elements during solidification of steel grades leads to development of a banded microstructure, causing a degree of anisotropy that can be detrimental to the mechanical behavior under service conditions. It is well-known that the presence of strongly orientated martensite bands in carbide-free bainitic microstructures, associated to inhomogeneous Mn redistribution during solidification, leads to a remarkable deterioration in toughness in advanced high strength bainitic steels. In this study, while bands were clearly visible on light optical micrographs of continuously cooled carbide-free bainitic steels, scanning electron microscopy examination revealed only a gradual transition between matrix and bands, both with a granular bainitic structure. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to quantify the bainitic packet size and volume fraction of martensite/austenite constituent between and within the bands, after a process of optimization of the analysis settings in order to minimize the inherent difficulties linked to sub-micrometric and minority phase indexation. The quantitative microstructural results showed negligible morphological differences between bainitic structure bands and matrix, only solute segregation of Cr and Mo was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within bands, which must be responsible for a stronger resistance against metallographic etching in those regions.
Authors: Francisca García Caballero, Harshad K.D.H. Bhadeshia
Authors: David San Martín, Francisca García Caballero, Carlos Capdevila, Carlos García de Andrés
Abstract: Austenite grain growth in microalloyed steels is governed by the coarsening of fine precipitates present at grain boundaries below the grain coarsening temperature. Zener model is widely used in metals to describe the pinning effect of second phase particles precipitated in the matrix. In this work it has been discussed whether grain boundary or volume diffusion is the rate controlling process for the coarsening of the niobium carbonitrides. Calculations on austenite grain growth kinetics, obtained coupling Zener theory and both rate controlling processes of precipitate coarsening, have been compared against experimental austenite grain size results under nonisothermal heating conditions. In this sense, it has been concluded that the coarsening of niobium carbonitrides is mainly controlled by volume diffusion of Nb in austenite.
Authors: J. Cornide, Goro Miyamoto, Francisca García Caballero, Tadashi Furuhara, Michael K. Miller, Carlos García-Mateo
Abstract: The dislocation density in ferrite and austenite of a bainitic microstructure obtained by transformation at very low temperature (300 °C) has been determined using transmission electron microscopy. Observations revealed that bainitic ferrite plates consist of two distinctive regions with different substructures. A central region in the ferrite plate is observed with dislocations that may result from lattice-invariant deformation at the earlier stage of bainite growth. As plastic deformation occurs in the surrounding austenite to accommodate the transformation strain as growth progresses, the Ferrite/Austenite interface has also a very distinctive dislocation profile. In addition, atom-probe tomography suggested that dislocation tangles observed in the vicinity of the ferrite/austenite interface might trap higher amount of carbon than single dislocations inside the bainitic ferrite plate.
Authors: Carlos García de Andrés, Carlos Capdevila, Francisca García Caballero
Authors: Carlos Capdevila, Tommy De Cock, Francisca García Caballero, Carlos García-Mateo, Carlos García de Andrés
Abstract: The influence of the deformation grade on the recrystallised grain size has been studied in the AISI 304 stainless steel. Therefore, cold rolled samples of this material with reductions varying between 30% and 80% were annealed at different temperatures and subsequently quenched. The mean austenitic grain sizes were measured and compared. Moreover, the correlation between the variation of the thermoelectric power and the grain growth was investigated for each degree of prior deformation.
Authors: Thomas Sourmail, Véronique Smanio, Francisca García Caballero, J. Cornide, C. Capdevilla, Carlos García-Mateo
Abstract: With the increasing demand for high performance engine or suspension components, bainitic steels are receiving interest as potential replacement of their quench and tempered counterparts. Indeed, for a number of mechanical components, ferrite pearlite microstructures are no longer sufficient in terms of mechanical properties. Bainitic steel grades allow production of hot-rolled bars or forged components exhibiting a homogeneous bainitic microstructure and achieving UTS up to 1200 MPa without the need for additional heat-treatments [1]. During tempering, these V-microalloyed bainitic steels exhibit unusual yield strength variations, with a very pronounced increase around 250-300 °C followed by the better known secondary hardening peak for temperatures around 600-650 °C. Indeed, after tempering at 250-300 °C, some of these steels exhibit an increase in yield strength of up to 200 MPa, concurrent with an increase in impact toughness of up to 25%. This, however, goes unnoticed if hardness measurements are used to characterize tempering. In the following, results are presented for three different bainitic steel grades, and the origins of the changes in mechanical properties are discussed.
Authors: Carlos Capdevila, Tommy De Cock, Carlos García-Mateo, Francisca García Caballero, Carlos García de Andrés
Abstract: The recrystallisation behaviour of two cold-rolled low carbon microalloyed steels with different Ti content was investigated by thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements and metallography. It was shown that recrystallisation was more sluggish in the higher Ti grade steel as compare with traditional ELC and LC steels. The existence of Ti in solid solution together with the pinning effect of Nb-, V- and Ti-rich particles are likely to be responsible for such behaviour. Metallographic etching with picral revealed that cementite act as preferential nucleation site for recrystallisation.
Authors: David San Martín, Francisca García Caballero, Carlos Capdevila, C. Carcía de Andrés
Abstract: Grain growth is a thermally activated process in which the average grain size increases as temperature and time increases. The driving force for grain growth results from the decrease in the free energy associated with the reduction in total grain boundary energy. There are several known factors that influence the migration of grain boundaries such as second phase particles precipitated in the matrix and the solute elements segregated at grain boundaries. The austenite grain boundaries are revealed using the thermal etching method. Carbon extraction replicas were prepared to determine the composition and size of precipitates present in the matrix. In this work, the evolution of the average prior austenite grain size (PAGS) of a low carbon steel microalloyed with niobium is studied as a function of temperature and heating rate. Austenite grains show a two-stage growth. It has been found that as heating rate increases, the grain coarsening temperature (TGC) increases and the grain size at that temperature decreases. TGC temperature lies around 40-60°C below the temperature for complete dissolution of carbonitrides (TDISS).
Authors: Carlos García-Mateo, Francisca García Caballero, Harshad K.D.H. Bhadeshia
Abstract: The mechanical properties of a bainitic microstructure with slender ferrite plates (20-65 nm in thickness) in a matrix of carbon-enriched retained austenite were characterized. The microstructure is generated by isothermal transformation at temperatures in the range 200-300°C. A yield strength as high as 1.5 GPa and an ultimate tensile strength between 1.77 to 2.2 GPa was achieved, depending on the transformation temperature. Furthermore, the high strength is frequently accompanied by ductility (£ 30%) and respectable levels of fracture toughness (< 45 MPa m0.5). This unusual combination of properties is attributed to the exceptionally fine scale of the carbidefree bainitic microstructure and the associated retained austenite.
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