Papers by Author: Fujio Abe

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Authors: Fujio Abe
Abstract: The effect of fine precipitates, excess dislocations and sub-boundary hardening on creep strain behavior in the transient region has been investigated for tempered martensitic 9%Cr steel at 600 and 650oC. The fine precipitates that form during tempering or during creep decrease the creep rate in the transient region, while excess dislocations produced by cold rolling promote the recovery of dislocations during creep, resulting in higher creep rates. The sub-boundary hardening is enhanced by fine precipitates along lath and block boundaries, which retards the onset of acceleration creep. The movement and annihilation process of dislocations in the transient region is controlled by not only the movement of dislocations in the matrix but also the absorption of dislocations at boundaries. The minimum creep rate is basically determined by the time to minimum creep rate.
Authors: Seiichi Muneki, Hiroshi Okubo, Fujio Abe
Abstract: In order to improve the creep strength of the heat resistant steels at elevated temperatures over 700°C, a new attempt has been demonstrated using carbon and nitrogen free Fe-Ni martensitic and austenitic alloys strengthened by Laves phase such as Fe2W and Fe2Mo. It is important that these alloys are independent of any carbides and any carbo-nitrides as strengthening factors. The high temperature creep tests over 700°C exceed 36,000 hours and the test is continued. Creep behavior of alloys is found to be completely different from that of the conventional high-Cr ferritic steels. The alloys exhibit gradual change in the creep rate with strain both in the transient and acceleration creep regions, and give a larger strain for the minimum creep rate. Effect of Cr on the Fe-12Ni-9Co-10W alloys on the creep properties more over 700°C was investigated. It became clear that the value for 100,000 hours was exceeded at 700°C and 100MPa calculated from the Larson-Miller parameter at C=20. And surface appearance of crept specimen was investigated in detail.
Authors: Fujio Abe
Abstract: Ferritic heat resistant steels are strongly desired to expand their maximum use temperature up to 650°C for application to the next highest temperature components of highly efficient, low emission ultra-supercritical (USC) power plant with maximum steam temperature of 700 °C. This minimizes the requirement of expensive nickel base superalloys. Critical issues for the development of ferritic steels for 650 °C USC boilers are the improvement of oxidation resistance as well as long-term creep rupture strength, including welded joints. The optimized combination of boron addition and dispersion of nanometer-sized vanadium nitrides significantly improves long-term creep strength of 9% Cr steel and also exhibits no degradation in welded joints at 650 °C. The protective Cr2O3-rich scale forms on the surface of 9% Cr steel by pre-oxidation treatment in Ar gas, which significantly improves the oxidation resistance in steam at 650°C.
Authors: Masaaki Igarashi, Koji Moriguchi, Seiichi Muneki, Fujio Abe, Yasuharu Shirai
Abstract: Creep deformation mechanism of the steels with a different matrix, α (ferrite), α’ (martensite) and γ (austenite), and precipitates such as MX and M23C6 has been analyzed using positron annihilation lifetime measurement. The positron annihilation lifetime has been found to be a very useful tool for evaluating the characteristic creep damage of the steels with different microstructure and the corresponding microstructural evolution during creep deformation. The creep deformation process of the α steel is heterogeneous, while the α’+M23C6 steel exhibits gradual changes in the creep rate in both transient and acceleration creep regions with the largest off-set strain, implying the homogeneous creep deformation. The α’+M23C6+ MX steel is in between the α and α’+M23C6 steels. The homogeneous creep deformation takes place in the γ steel.
Authors: Fujio Abe
Abstract: The effect of boron on microstructure evolution and creep deformation behavior has been investigated for a tempered martensitic 9Cr-3W-3Co-0.2V-0.05Nb steel at 650oC. Creep tests were carried out at 650oC for up to about 6 x 104 h. The addition of boron retards the onset of acceleration creep at low stress and long time conditions, which results in lower minimum creep rate and longer time to rupture. The addition of boron also retards the Ostwald ripening of M23C6 carbides near prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) during creep. The retardation of the onset of acceleration creep results from the retardation of the recovery of martensitic microstructure near PAGBs by pinning effects due to fine M23C6 carbides. The main effect due to boron is considered to occupy vacancies near growing M23C6 carbides, which makes it difficult to accommodate local volume change around the growing carbides. This reduces the rate of Ostwald ripening of M23C6 carbides.
Authors: Seiichi Muneki, Hiroshi Okubo, Hirokazu Okada, Fujio Abe
Authors: Seiichi Muneki, Hiroshi Okubo, Hirokazu Okada, Masaaki Igarashi, Fujio Abe
Abstract: The carbon and nitrogen free new alloys which were composed of the supersaturated martensitic microstructure with high dislocation density before the creep test have been investigated systematically. These alloys were produced from the new approach which raised creep strength by the utilization of the reverse transformed austenite phase as a matrix and intermetallic compounds such as Laves and μ-phases as precipitates during creep test. It is important that these alloys are independent of any carbides and carbo-nitrides as strengthening factors. Creep behavior of the alloys is found to be different from that of the conventional high-Cr ferritic heat resistant steels. The minimum creep rates of the Fe-Ni alloys at 700°C are found to be much lower than that of the conventional steel, which is due to fine dispersion strengthening useful even at 700°C in these alloys. As a result carbon and nitrogen free alloys exhibited superior creep properties at temperatures more over 700°C, and steam oxidation resistance.
Authors: Fujio Abe, H. Semba, T. Sakuraya
Abstract: The effect of boron on microstructure and creep deformation behavior has been investigated for a tempered martensitic 9Cr-3WVNb steel with emphasis on the role of boron free from boron nitrides. Creep tests were carried out at 650oC for up to about 3 x 104 h, using specimens of 10 mm in gauge diameter and 50 mm in gauge length. The addition of boron in combination with no nitrogen addition effectively reduces the coarsening rate of M23C6 carbides by an enrichment of boron in M23C6 particles in the vicinity of prior austenite grain boundaries during creep at 650oC. This stabilizes martensitic microstructure during creep and retards the onset of acceleration creep, resulting in a decrease in minimum creep rate and an increase in creep life. Excess addition of boron and nitrogen causes the formation of boron nitrides during normalizing at 1050-1150oC, which reduces dissolved boron and nitrogen. The dissolved boron enriches in M23C6 carbides, while the dissolved nitrogen causes the precipitation of fine MX carbonitrides. The variation of creep rates in transient region and of the onset time of acceleration creep with various combinations of boron and nitrogen contents can be explained by the dissolved boron and nitrogen concentrations after normalizing into account.
Authors: Yoshiaki Toda, Hideaki Kushima, Kazuhiro Kimura, Fujio Abe
Abstract: The effects of nickel content and heat treatment conditions on the creep strength of precipitation-strengthened 15Cr ferritic steel were investigated. The creep strength of the 15Cr ferritic steel was drastically improved by solution treatment and water quenching. However, over the long term, the detrimental effect of nickel on the creep strength was pronounced for water-quenched steels. The volume fraction of martensite phase increased with increased nickel content in both the furnace-cooled and water-quenched steels. The volume fraction of martensite phase in the water-quenched steel was smaller than that in the furnace-cooled type, even for the same nickel content. Fine particles, smaller than 500 nm, were precipitated homogeneously within the ferrite phase of the water-quenched steel. On the other hand, coarse block-like particles 1 $m in size were precipitated sparsely within the martensite phase. The creep strength of the steels decreased with increased volume fraction of the martensite phase caused by furnace cooling and nickel addition. The lower creep strength and microstructural stability of the martensite phase is attributable to less precipitation strengthening. To enable this steel to be put to practical use, it will be necessary to suppress the formation of the martensite phase caused by addition of nickel by optimizing the chemical composition and heat treatment conditions.
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