Papers by Author: Henri Nguyen-Thi

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Authors: Henri Nguyen-Thi, Jiang Wang, Georges Salloum-Abou-Jaoude, Guillaume Reinhart, Imants Kaldre, Nathalie Mangelinck, Zhong Ming Ren, Leonids Buligins, Andris Bojarevics, Yves Fautrelle, Olga Budenkova, Tamzin Lafford
Abstract: It is well known that the application of a magnetic field during the growth process can have pronounced effects on cast material structures and their properties, so that magnetic fields have been widely applied since the 1950s. In the case of a permanent magnetic field, some recent results revealed a dual effect on the liquid metal flow. 1: the magnetic field has a selective damping action on the flow at the scale of the crucible, due to the Lorentz force; 2: the interaction of thermo-electro-magnetic (TEM) currents in the close vicinity of the solid-liquid interface with the applied magnetic field leads to the generation of electromagnetic forces, which act both on the liquid and on the solid at the scale of the microstructure. We present an experimental investigation of the TEM forces induced by a permanent magnetic field during columnar and equiaxed solidification of Al-4wt%Cu. In situ visualization was carried out by means of synchrotron X-ray radiography, which is a method of choice for studying dynamic phenomena. It was shown that the TEM forces were at the origin of a motion of dendritic particles, perpendicular to the direction of gravity. A heuristic analysis allowed us to estimate the fluid velocities and the velocities of the solid particles, and a good agreement was achieved with the experimental data. Similar observations were also made during equiaxed growth in a temperature gradient. The in situ observation of the grain trajectories for various values of the temperature gradient demonstrated that gravity and TEM forces were the driving forces which controlled the grain motion.
Authors: Guillaume Reinhart, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Brice Sarpi, Aboul Aziz Bogno, Bernard Billia
Abstract: Temperature Gradient Zone Melting (TGZM) occurs when a liquidsolid zone is submitted to a temperature gradient and leads to the migration of liquid droplets or channels through the solid, up the temperature gradient. TGZM has a major influence on the preparation of the initial solid-liquid interface during the stabilization phase following the directional melting of an alloy and is at the origin of the diffusion of solute towards the top part of the mushy zone. TGZM is also causing the migration up the temperature gradient of dendrite secondary arms during directional solidification, which can have a significant impact on the micro-segregation pattern of the final microstructure. In this communication we report on a directional solidification experiment carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) on Al4.0 wt.% Cu alloy to study the dynamics induced by the TGZM phenomenon on an equiaxed grain that nucleated in front of a columnar structure. Based on in situ experimental observations obtained by synchrotron X-ray radiography, the dissolution of the bottom part of the equiaxed grain is characterized and measurements are compared with predictions of the TGZM theory in diffusive regime.
Authors: H.J. Jung, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Nathalie Bergeon, Bernard Billia, Adeline Buffet, J. Baruchel
Abstract: The columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) has been widely studied for many years [1] because this phenomenon is observed in metallurgical applications like castings. In non refined alloys, detachment of dendrite fragments is the most probable mechanism responsible for the formation of an equiaxed microstructure [1]. In this frame, melt convection influences the grain structure evolution by playing a role in the fragmentation phenomena [2].
Authors: Georges Salloum-Abou-Jaoude, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Guillaume Reinhart, Ragnvald H. Mathiesen, Gerhard Zimmermann, Daniela Voss
Abstract: In the frame of ESA-MAP (Microgravity Application Promotion) project entitled XRMON (In situ X-Ray MONitoring of advanced metallurgical processes under microgravity and terrestrial conditions), a microgravity (μg) experiment in the XRMON-GF (Gradient Furnace) setup was successfully launched in 2012 on board MASER 12 sounding rocket. During this experiment, in situ and real time observations of the formation of the solidification microstructures in diffusive conditions were carried out for the first time by using X-ray radiography. In addition, two reference experiments with the same control parameters but in ground-based conditions were performed to enable us a direct comparison with the μg experiment and therefore to enlighten the effects of gravity upon microstructure formation. This communication reports on fragmentation phenomenon observed during those experiments. For 1g upward solidification, fragmentations mainly take place in the upper part of the mushy zone. After their detachments, dendrite fragments are carried away by buoyancy force in the bulk liquid where they are gradually remelted. For μg experiment and horizontal solidification, this type of fragmentation is not observed. However, a great number of fragmentations are surprisingly revealed by in situ observation in the deep part of the mushy zone, when the liquid fraction is very small. Moreover, as soon as they are detached, the dendrite fragments move toward the cold part of the mushy zone, even in the case of μg experiment. The observations suggest that sample shrinkage may be at the origin of this fragment motion.
Authors: Charles-André Gandin, Bernard Billia, Gerhard Zimmermann, David J. Browne, M.D. Dupouy, G. Guillemot, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Guillaume Reinhart, Laszlo Sturz, Shaun McFadden, Jerzy Banaszek, Yves Fautrelle, K. Zaïdat, A. Ciobanas
Abstract: The main objective of the research project of the European Space Agency (ESA) - Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme entitled Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL) is the investigation of the formation of the transition from columnar to equiaxed macrostructure that takes place in casting. Indeed, grain structures observed in most casting processes of metallic alloys are the result of a competition between the growth of several arrays of dendrites that develop under constrained and unconstrained conditions, leading to the CET. A dramatic effect of buoyancy-driven flow on the transport of equiaxed crystals on earth is acknowledged. This leads to difficulties in conducting precise investigations of the origin of the formation of the equiaxed crystals and their interaction with the development of the columnar grain structure. Consequently, critical benchmark data to test fundamental theories of grain structure formation are required, that would benefit from microgravity investigations. Accordingly, the ESA-MAP CETSOL project has gathered together European groups with complementary skills to carry out experiments and to model the processes, in particular with a view to utilization of the reduced-gravity environment that will be afforded by the International Space Station (ISS) to get benchmark data. The ultimate objective of the research program is to significantly contribute to the improvement of integrated modelling of grain structure in industrially important castings. To reach this goal, the approach is devised to deepen the quantitative understanding of the basic physical principles that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales, govern microstructure formation in solidification processing under diffusive conditions and with fluid flow in the melt. Pertinent questions are attacked by well-defined model experiments on technical alloys and/or on model transparent systems, physical modelling at microstructure and mesoscopic scales (e.g. large columnar front or equiaxed crystals) and numerical simulation at all scales, up to the macroscopic scales of casting with integrated numerical models.
Authors: Guillaume Reinhart, Henri Nguyen-Thi, J. Gastaldi, Bernard Billia, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Thomas Schenk, J. Härtwig, J. Baruchel
Abstract: Solidification is a dynamic phenomena and, as a consequence, it is of major interest to be able to investigate this process by in situ and real time observation. With synchrotron sources, this can be achieved by applying X-ray Imaging techniques (Radiography and Topography). Hence it is possible to follow the dynamical selection of solidification pattern on metallic alloys and to observe strain effects during growth process. In this paper, we present results obtained by using separately the two imaging techniques for the study of the microstructure formation during Al – Ni alloys solidification.
Authors: Henri Nguyen-Thi, Bing Hong Zhou, Guillaume Reinhart, Bernard Billia, Q.S. Liu, C.W. Lan, Tatyana Lyubimova, B. Roux
Abstract: This paper presents a summary of cellular and dendritic morphologies resulting from the upward directional solidification of Al – Ni alloys in a cylindrical crucible. We analysed the coupling of solid-liquid interface morphology with natural and forced convection. The influence of natural convection was first analyzed as a function of growth parameters (solute concentration, growth rate and thermal gradient). In a second step, the influence of axial vibrations on solidification microstructure was investigated by varying vibration parameters (amplitude and frequency). Experimental results were compared to preliminary numerical simulations and a good agreement is found for natural convection. In this study, the critical role of the mushy zone in the interaction between fluid flow and solidification microstructure is pointed out.
Authors: Adeline Buffet, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Aziz Bogno, Thomas Schenk, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Guillaume Reinhart, Nathalie Bergeon, Bernard Billia, J. Baruchel
Abstract: In the present study, we report on an image analysis procedure, which enables to extract from synchrotron radiographs the long range solute profiles in the whole sample and in both phases (solid and liquid). This image analysis is based on the measurement of local density differences, and is applied to study the directional solidification of Al - 4wt% Cu alloy, from planar to onset of the initial instability. Dedicated experiments were carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France). In order to validate this analysis the value of a key solidification parameter, namely the partition coefficient, was experimentally determined during the planar solidification, and a very good agreement was found with value found usually in the literature. On a further step, the evolution of the microstructure and solute profile during the initial transient of solidification was analysed in detail.
Authors: Charles-André Gandin, J. Blaizot, Salem Mosbah, Michel Bellet, Gerhard Zimmermann, Laszlo Sturz, David J. Browne, Shaun McFadden, H. Jung, Bernard Billia, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Yves Fautrelle, Xiao Dong Wang
Abstract: Simulations of several laboratory experiments developed for the study of structure and segregation in casting are presented. Interaction between the development of dendritic grain structure and segregation due to the transport of heat and mass by diffusion and convection is modeled using a Cellular Automaton - Finite Element model. The model includes a detailed treatment of diffusion of species in both the solid and liquid phases as presented elsewhere in this volume [1]. Applications deal with prediction of columnar and equiaxed grain structures, as well as inter-dendritic and inter-granular segregations induced by diffusion and macrosegregation induced by thermosolutal buoyancy forces.
Authors: Bernard Billia, Henri Nguyen-Thi, Guillaume Reinhart, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël, J. Gastaldi, Thomas Schenk, J. Hartwig, J. Baruchel, V. Cristiglio, B. Grushko, Holger Klein
Abstract: The solid microstructure built in the solid governs the properties of materials elaborated from the melt. In order to clarify the dynamical mechanisms controlling solidification processing, we use in situ and real-time synchrotron X-ray radiography at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) to analyze microstructure formation in thin aluminum alloys solidified in the Bridgman facility installed at the ID19 beamline. During directional solidification of Al - 3.5 wt% Ni alloys, global mechanical constraints induced by the shape are found to act on the solid microstructure. In particular, radiography videos of dendritic growth show disorientations of sidebranches induced by mechanical stresses. In the solidification of AlPdMn quasicrystals, live imaging reveals that facetted growth proceeds by the lateral motion of ledges at the solid-melt interface. When the solidification rate is increased, the kinetic undercooling becomes sufficient for grain nucleation and growth in the liquid. These grains develop specific features that can be attributed to grain competition and concomitant poisoning of growth caused by the rejection of aluminum in the melt.
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